Parks’ Triad

Triad meaning three for which I have found 2 different forms of verse called a Triad. 
• The Triad is a genre from ancient Irish Verse rather than a verse form although the early examples are in 3 mono-rhymed triplets. Like the Treochair it is a departure from the quatrains of Dan Direach. More modern versions allow the structure to be at the poet’s discretion. Most importantly, the poem should include 3 related subjects and their character. 

The early Triad is:
○ a poem that lists 3 related things and considers their effects.
○ written in 3 mono-rhymed triplets. Meter is at the discretion of the poet.
○ is written with modern interpretations of this form which vary from free verse, a loose poetic form written in 3 couplets rhymed or unrhymed, or in nonce frames created specifically for the poem.
○ most importantly written including 3 related subjects, their character and relationship.

Uniquely Irish, The Shamrock by Judi Van Gorder 

I don’t mean to be terse 
It could be much much worse 
but I’ll try to write a clever verse.

Of shamrock’s I will carp, 
may sound a bit too sharp 
not like sweet music on the harp. 

In distant Ireland of all places 
they cover most of the bases 
even the art of shaving faces.

Seamrog, (Gaelic) shamrock, with its 3 leaves is said to represent not only the Holy Trinity, but also (the fruits of the spirit, faith, hope and charity), (love, valor and wit), (past, present and future) and uniquely Irish, (clever verse, music on the harp, and the art of shaving faces).

• A variation of the Triad was published in Pathways for the Poet by Viola Berg 1977 and is attributed to Rena Ferguson Parks. It is a metered, rhymed invented form with a refrain.

The invented variation of the Triad is:
○ a poem in 22 lines made up of an octave, sixain and an octave in that order.
○ metric, all lines are iambic tetrameter accept the last line of each stanza which is a refrain in iambic dimeter.
○ rhymed, turned on only 2 rhymes, rhyme scheme xxxaxabA xxxabA xxxaxabA – b rhyme linking the stanzas and A being the refrain.

Pasted from
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

I have chosen for expediency to differentiate, by tagging the second version with the name “Park’s Triad”.

My example

They’re Out of Names (Parks’ Triad)

Last week I found another life;
it’s on the Internet, you know.
If you are not already there
you must be tied up playing games,
or busy earning daily bread,
or optimistic, chasing dames.
you ought to join this word- before
they’re out of names.

I could not use a name I knew;
I tried a few and many more,
then many others after those.
“That name is taken”- screen proclaims.
I can’t be Larry anymore,
they’re out of names.

I teleport, and I can fly,
and be a woman, or a man
or be a robot or a beast,
but I cannot be John or James.
I can now choose to wander free
or be one with more lofty aims.
So join up now, and don’t be sore;
they’re out of names.

© Lawrencealot – February 4, 2015


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Parks Triad

Tree of Life

  • Tree of Life is an invented verse form written in the shape of a tree. Found at Poetry Styles and created by Christina Jusaumme who requests the subject of the poem be uplifting.
    The Tree of Life is:

    • a poem in 19 lines.
    • syllabic, 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-4-4-4-4-4-4.
    • unrhymed.
    • centered on the page.

My Thanks to Christina R Jussaume for her work on PoetryStyles site.


My example


Be Deciduous (Tree of Life)



that falls

on barren

limbs still may break

those boughs. None-the-less

the trees prepare themselves

by shedding platforms to which

snow would adhere, ensuring harm.

Bears can push through piles of snow, yet don’t.

They forecast and hibernate while snow falls.

It seems that man alone insists that he must

strive to thumb his nose and try to dance his forty

hour shuffle, weather be damned, inviting heart attacks.

Stock some lanterns

and candles too

stockpiles some food

that’s good for you

then read some books

and stay inside.


© Lawrencealot – February 3, 2015


• The Totok is a verse form in 4 unrhymed lines of anapestic tetrameter. I found this form in only one source although I was able to find that “Totok” refers to Cantonese immigrants that come to Thailand and tend to retain their Chinese language and customs.

The Totok is:
○ a poem in 4 lines.
○ accentual syllabic, anapestic tetrameter.
○ unrhymed.

Anticipated —Judi Van Gorder

A tick ticking of earth’s endless seasonal clock,
though our Winter stayed late, Spring began without fanfare,
silent sprouts broke the surface of frost covered ground
bringing Spring with its showers and flowers and light.

Pasted from
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

Thinking Ahead (Totok)

As the weather gets cooler and nights start to chill
and the holiday seasons promote our good cheer
and we wave to our neighbors out raking the leaves
we are thinking ahead to next summer’s warm days.

© Lawrencealot – February 2, 2015

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Toddaid, todd-eyed is the 19th codified Welsh meter, an Awdl, and an uneven couplet often written in combination with other meters especially the 9 syllable couplet, cyhydedd hir.

The is:
• stanzac, written in any number of couplets.
• syllabic, L1 is a 10 syllable line and L2 is a 9 syllable line.
• rhymed, the main rhyme aa – cc – dd etc.
• composed with gair cyrch* following the main rhyme and caesura of L1. The gair cyrch end rhyme is echoed in the first half of L2 in secondary rhyme, assonance or consonance.
• sometimes written in a shortened version of 16 syllables, L1 is 10 syllables and L2 is only 6 syllables which is called a toddaid byr.
toddaid couplets

x x x x x x x A – x b
x x x x b x x x A
x x x x x x x C – x d
x x x d x x x x c

a toddaid byr
x x x x x x x A x b
x x x b x A

Nit digeryd Duw, neut digarat—kyrd
Neut lliw gwyrd y vyrd o veird yn rat;
Neut lliaws vrwyn kwyn knawlat— yghystud
O’th attall Ruffudd gwaywrud rodyat.
Einion 15th century

Shere Kahn by Judi Van Gorder

The young calico keeping cool – eases
slow as she pleases upon the stool .
Her Bengal bones live nine lives – daring dogs,
chasing frogs, tiger dreams, kitten thrives.

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*gair cyrch, appears as a tail or an addemendum to a line; it is the last few syllables of a 10 syllable line that follow the placement of the main rhyme of the stanza marked by caesura. When the main rhyme of the stanza appears within the body in the last half of a 10 syllable line the syllables following that main rhyme and caesura is the gair cyrch. eg x x x x x x A – x x x, it could also appear as x x x x x x x A – x B, the “A” being the main rhyme which is echoed as end rhyme throughout the stanza and the “B” being a secondary rhyme. The secondary rhyme is usually echoed in the early to mid part of the next line. The caesura following the main rhyme is often a dash -.

My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example


Embellished (Toddaid)

She wore a steampunk hat and bra – and shoes
She couldn’t lose; she was held in awe.
She was cocooned in metal ware – of course.
a visual force men would touch with care.

© Lawrencealot – February 2, 2015

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Tina’s Zigzag Rhyme

Tina’s Zigzag Rhyme is a form created by Christina R Jussaume on September 21, 2009.
It starts with a sestet, refrain, quatrain, refrain and quatrain.
It must be uplifting subject.
Rhyme in first two lines is at left,
next rhyme is center in lines 3 and 4,
and rhyme in lines 5 and 6 is an end rhyme.
Refrain is first two lines of poem.

After refrain you use center rhyme, then end rhyme, continue with refrain… etc.
It is an 8 syllable per line poem. No limit to stanzas but must have, at least one sestet, refrain, and quatrain.

Copied from
My Thanks to Christina R Jussaume for her work on PoetryStyles site.

My example

Now is a Present (Tina’s ZigZag Rhyme)

Behold! It’s clear that I can think.
I’m sold that men are so imbued.
There is no need for fairy tales
or a dogma’s creed to comfort.
I think that if you think you’ll see
that things are just as they should be.

Behold! It’s clear that I can think.
I’m sold that men are so imbued.

All of us should enjoy right now
seeking what is good in others.
Happiness is an attitude
that worry’s likely to exclude.

© Lawrencealot – February 1, 2015

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Tinas ZigZag Rhyne

Tho Tam Chu

Vietnamese Poetry


      • Tho Tam Chu or Eight Word Poetry appears to be more flexible in stanza length as well as tonal and end rhyme. The rhyme schemes are patterns I found in actual poems. It appears to me that as long as there is rhyme, it probably doesn’t matter what the pattern is.Tho Tam Chu is:
        • stanzaic, written in any number of either tercets, quatrains or septets.
        • measured by the number of words in the line, 8 word per line.
        • rhymed,
        • tonal rhyme is flexible except, if the end word is sharp then the 3rd word is also sharp and words 5 and 6 are flat. Conversely if the end word is flat then the 3rd word is also flat and the 5th and 6th words are sharp.
        • end rhyme
        • when written in tercets
          w w w w w w w a
          w w w w w w a b
          w w w w b w w b
        • when written in quatrains is:
    • w w w w w w w w –or —
    • w w w w w w w a
    • w w w w w w w w
    • w w w w w w w a
    • w w w w w w w w
    • w w w w w w w a
    • w w w w w w w a
    • w w w w w w w w
      • when written as a septet
        w w w w w w w a
        w w w w w w w a
        w w w w w w w a
        w w w w w w w a
        w w w w w w w b
        w w w w w w w b
        w w w w w w w w



Pasted from
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.



Whereas with the Bay Chu, I copped out because I had no notion of the tonal requirement, I was emboldened here by Judi’s observation that tonal rhyme was flexible.  I therefore took the liberty to equate the Vietnamese flat and sharp sounds to the English long and short sounds, and have treated the words in positions 3,5,6 and 8 accordingly.


From Wikipedia

Traditional long and short vowels in English orthography[edit]

English vowels are sometimes split into “long” and “short” vowels along lines different from the linguistic differentiation. Traditionally, the vowels /eɪ iː aɪ oʊ juː/ (as in bait beat bite boat bute) are said to be the “long” counterparts of the vowels /æ ɛ ɪ ɒ ʌ/ (as in bat bet bit bot but) which are said to be “short”. This terminology reflects their pronunciation before the Great Vowel Shift.

Traditional English phonics teaching, at the preschool to first grade level, often used the term “long vowel” for any pronunciation that might result from the addition of a silent E(e.g., like) or other vowel letter as follows:

Letter “Short” “Long” Example
A a /æ/ /eɪ/ mat / mate
E e /ɛ/ /iː/ pet / Pete
I i /ɪ/ /aɪ/ twin / twine
O o /ɒ/ /oʊ/ not / note
U u /ʌ/ /juː/ cub / cube

A mnemonic was that each vowel’s long sound was its name.

In Middle English, the long vowels /iː, eː, ɛː, aː, ɔː, oː, uː/ were generally written i..e, e..e, ea, a..e, o..e, oo, u..e. With the Great Vowel Shift, they came to be pronounced /aɪ, iː, iː, eɪ, oʊ, uː, aʊ/. Because ea and oo are digraphs, they are not called long vowels today. Under French influence, the letter u was replaced with ou (or final ow), so it is no longer considered a long vowel either. Thus the so-called “long vowels” of Modern English are those vowels written with the help of a silent e.


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 My example


Vietnam Poetry Didactic (Tho Tam Chu)

 If word three is long, expect to find
the words five and six not so aligned.
By word three, eight’s sound is now defined.
One must keep these rules within one’s mind.
That being done, then each line is fun,
a challenge yet, here I write this one.
An unrhymed line must still conform like so.


© Lawrencealot – January 31, 2015


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Tho Tam Chu









Bay Chu

Vietnamese Poetry

• Tho Bay Chu or Seven Word Poetry is written with seemingly more flexible tonal pattern than most Viet verse with the exception of when an end word is flat, the 3rd word must be sharp and when the end word is sharp, the 3rd word in the line must be flat. 

Tho Bay Chu is:
○ stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains.
○ measured by number of words, 7 words per line.
○ rhymed, tonal rhyme appears to be at the discretion of the poet except if and end word is flat, the 3rd word of the line must be sharp or if the end word is sharp, the 3rd word of the line must be flat. End rhyme aaxa bbxb etc. or xaxa xbxb etc.

Pasted from
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

Cannot begin to write one of these, because the concepts of a tonal flat or sharp is not within my grasp, even though I can find audio samples on Wikipedia.

Tho Sau Chu

Vietnamese Poetry

Tho Sau Chu or Six Word Verse is measured by word count and uses either alternate or envelope rhyme. It can be written in quatrains or octaves. When written in octaves it is called Six-Eight Poetry 

Tho Sau Chu is:
○ stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains. It can also be written in any number of octaves.
○ measured by word count, 6 words per line.
○ rhymed, either alternate, abab cdcd etc. (when written as Six-Eight abababab cdcdcdcd etc.) or envelope, abba cddc etc. (when written in octaves abbaabba cddccddc etc.)

Pasted from
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

Old New Form Takes a Bow

Old New Form Takes a Bow (Tho Sau Chu)

This poetry form comes from Vietnam
which doesn’t rhyme with Uncle Sam
but with either mom or bomb.
Am I certain? Yes I am!

If my lines led you astray,
it’s because I’m a contrary guy.
I feel my misdirection is okay
when a second reading explains why.

I’m writing this Tho Sau Chu
(though English cannot do it proud.)
This form hereby makes its debut
with only one hundred words allowed.

I think none will be uptight
with a new form that’s presented
to shine and share the spotlight;
with ninety-six words I feel contented.

© Lawrencealot – January 31, 2015

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Tho Sau Chu

Star Sevlin

Star Sevlin is an invented shape poem that is supposed to form a star when centered on the page. It is found in Pathways for the Poet by Viola Berg 1977 and was created by Lilliann Mathilda Svenson.  The only example I found on the Internet today  (1/30/2015) was a contest winner in 1951.

The Star Sevlin is:
 a heptastich, a poem in 7 lines.
 iambic syllabic, iambic  4/6/8/6/8/6/4 syllables per line.
 rhymed, rhyme scheme abbcaca.
 centered on the page.

My example

First One in 50 Years (Star Sevlin)

I don’t know why
this form is called a star
and not Svenson’s. That’s how things are.
There isn’t much to find
Good samples are in short supply
Thus my blog was designed
lest old forms die.

© Lawrencealot – January 30, 2015

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Star Sevlin


The Pictorial
The Pictorial, created by Emily Romano is a type of shape poem, where the entire poem must be printed in slanting lines indicative of the thought in those lines. The poem should consist of three lines with five words or less per line. There should be rhyme somewhere in the poem, either end rhyme or internal rhyme.
Example #1:

See                       and                      rippling
     how                       how                            like
            the                        the                             waves
                  roof                     sunlight                         along
                         slopes                        follows                     hollows

Copyright © 2007 Emily Romano

Example #2:

                 shows                 rows:                  glows!
         moon               beyond            pumpkin
Rising                rows                  each

Copyright © 2007 Emily Romano

Example #3:
Migration (Double Pictorial)

The               my                    for               that
     skies            soul                   it                   all
            are              seeks               is                  cares
                where             peace           there              cease.

                  sees                          flight          geese               right.
            one                     shaped            of                seems
      when               v-                 flocks          world
For              the                    of                 the

Copyright © 2007 Jan Turner


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Many thanks to the ShadowPoetry site.


Note:  I saw from the above example the the poet has some leeway on the number of lines.

My example


Puppy Rescue  (Double Pictorial)

                        but found the task too hard.       The pup fell from above
                   then carried him far up                               and landed in my yard.
            from the pup’s own yard                                           So give your puppy love
An eagle snatched a pup                                                            but always be on guard.

 Lawrencealot – January 30, 2015