Carol

Carol
Type: Structure, Metrical Requirement, Rhyme Scheme Requirement, Other Requirement, Stanzaic
Description: Carols started out as a form of singing circular folk dance. Plato inveighed against their ancestors, so there must be something good about them.
Carols do vary widely in form, especially these days, but back around the 15th century, they were more standardized.
A carol started out with a “burden” or short chorus. This was usually a rhymed couplet. That was followed by verses that were often short-lined quatrains with rhyme of bbba. The last lines of the quatrains were sometimes a foot or so shorter than the other three. The burden might appear as a chorus between verses, or it might be used as two refrains that appeared as the last line of the verses. There were many variations, but this covers the basics.
Schematic:
The pattern of burden and verse might look like this:

xxxxxxxa
xxxxxxxa

xxxxxxxb
xxxxxxxb
xxxxxxxb
xxxxxa
Rhythm/Stanza Length: 4

Pasted from http://www.poetrybase.info/forms/000/32.shtml
My Thanks to Charles L. Weatherford for his work on the wonderful poetrybase resource.

 

The Carol Old French-carola-a ring dance accompanied by song, is a joyous hymn. Originally it was a medieval festive religious verse coming from the tradition of religious dance. The French Noël, is also a Carol, it is a “joyous song of nativity”. The French Carola and Noël are a thematic genre with the structure at the discretion of the poet, both predate the English Carol. The word Carol has become associated with Christmas and Easter because of its French origin and because the verse in England centered on celebrations that replaced the pagan winter and spring festivities. Today in America we often think of the Carol as any Christmas song.

The poetic pattern or stanzaic form recognized as the Carol fell into place sometime in 15th century England just about the same time that dance was being discouraged from the religious celebration. The clerics regarded dance as the survival of pagan influence and the lyrics of some of the earliest Carols seem to support that theory as they were often highly erotic.

• The Carol Texte or Burden is the couplet refrain that is repeated throughout the poem. It is the primary theme of the poem and in particular the refrain line of the Carol.

The Carol is
• metered or folk rhythm, most often trimeter or carrying 3 stresses. Whatever is used, it should be a running meter (lines the same length)
• stanzaic, made up of any number of quatrains alternating with a Carol Texte or Burden (rhyming couplet). There can be variations on stanza length but the quatrain is the most popular, the Burden always remains a couplet.
• written with an alternating refrain. The lines of the Carol Texte alternate as a refrain from quatrain to quatrain.
• rhymed, with a predominant rhyme scheme of A¹A², bbbA¹, cccA², dddA¹ and so on. There can be variation in rhyme scheme but mono rhyme is the most common.
• joyous.

Here is a variation of the Carol, combining the ancient and the modern. Here the “burden” is repeated intact between quatrains. Creating a rhyme scheme,
A¹A², bbba, A¹A², ccca A¹A², ddda, A¹A².

A Present for Both by Rex Allen Brewer 8-5-05

Lets turn the lights down low,
I like to do it slow.

I like to touch your skin,
I like the mood we’re in,
I like the way you grin,
I want you now, I know.

Lets turn the lights down low,
I like to do it slow.

I love to watch your face,
that smile when we embrace,
its classic style and grace,
cool lips and eyes that glow.

Lets turn the lights down low,
I like to do it slow.

I like to make you move,
and see you find your groove,
I hope that you approve,
hold tight, don’t let me go.

Lets turn the lights down low,
I like to do it slow.

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=655#burden
My thanks to Judi Van Gorden for year of work on this fine PMO resource.

Since the above example in done in iambic trimeter, I’ll write mine according to the olde time specs.

My example

When the Nest is Full (Carol)

I like to play when we’re alone
and I can make you sigh and moan.

It used to be we had all day,
we were alone and we could play
most anywhere or any way
and wild the oats were sown.

I like to play when we’re alone
and I can make you sigh and moan.

Then children on the scene arrived
and though our urges still survived
of freedom now we’ve been deprived
by children of our own.

I like to play when we’re alone
and I can make you sigh and moan.

It seems to take appointments now
for me to bed my pretty frau.
We lock our door and sneak somehow
or frequently postpone.

I like to play when we’re alone
and I can make you sigh and moan.

We own a house- so how the hell
did we end up in some motel?
It’s your fault, you know very well,
for sighing on the phone.

I like to play when we’re alone
and I can make you sigh and moan.

© Lawrencealot – August 4, 2014

Visual Template of this Carol

Carol

Trochetta

 This is a form created by Lisa La Grange
It is stanzaic, consisting of two or more quatrains
It is syllabic, 8/5/8/5
It is metric, all lines beginning with a trochee and an anpest,
And followed on the long lines with an amphibrach, giving this pattern:
DUM da da da DUM da DUM da
DUM da da da DUM
DUM da da da DUM da DUM da
DUM da da da DUM
The rhyme scheme is abab, where the a-rhymes are feminine.

The Trochetta, created by Lisa La Grange of Allpoetry.

(This had also been posted here by me, with the name: Trochee LaGrange.)

Stanzaic,              three or more quatrains

Syllabic,               8/5/8/5

Rhyme pattern:  abab(a-rhymes are feminine)

Meter:                  trochaic

 

My Example poem

 

Puppy Dreams     (Trochetta)

 PuppyDreams

Dogs do dream I have a notion-

dreams of pleasant things.

Mine can’t dream about the ocean

nor the pomp of kings.

Ocean’s spray he’s not discovered,

royalty’s abstract!

Grizzy burrows under covers

firm against my back.

Twitches might mean he is running

after his green ball;

Maybe he’s supine and sunning

waiting for my call.

© Lawrencealot – February 22, 2014

Visual Template
 

Pendrangle

Pendrangle  is a form created by Penelope Allen aka  PenAllen on Allpoetry.
Stanzaic: Two or more of quatrain couplet pairs
Refrain:  The couplet is a refrain repeated throughout
Isosyllabic:  Hexameter (12 syllable lines)
Rhymed-   mono-rhyme throughout: aaaa BB cccc BB…
Example Poem
Objects of Art     (Pendrangle)
I’m fortunate residing in this time and place
for daily, if I wish I can watch horses race
across the plain or stand and graze with calming grace.
They’ve never pulled a load nor had to wear a trace.
Ascendancy of man, remarkable of course
was aided by domestication of the horse.
The spirit of the horse is recognized in art
in each and every age in which he’s played apart.
They’ve pulled our carriage our cannon and our cart.
They’ve captured man’s respect, and many young boy’s heart.
Ascendancy of man remarkable, of course
was aided by domestication of the horse.
In Nevada, they are allowed now to roam
protected in some areas once their natural home
where grasses, junipers, and sage have always grown.
And though they’re dancing free we feel that they’re our own.
Ascendancy of man remarkable, of course
was aided by domestication of the horse.
The V&T railroad now crosses their terrain
with stops to watch their beauty up above the plain.
They’re one delight of many, one sees from the train.
The horses drew me there, and I’  go back again.
Ascendancy of man remarkable, of course
was aided by domestication of the horse.
© Lawrencealot – January 1, 2014
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pantoum

The pantoum consists of a series of quatrains rhyming ABAin which the second and fourth lines of a quatrain recur as the first and third lines in the succeeding quatrain;
each quatrain introduces a new second rhyme as BCBC, CDCD .
The first line of the series recurs as the last line of the closing quatrain,
and third line of the poem recurs as the second line of the closing quatrain, rhyming ZAZA.
The design is simple:
Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
Line 4
Line 5 (repeat of line 2)
Line 6
Line 7 (repeat of line 4)
Line 8
Continue with as many stanzas as you wish, but the ending
stanza then repeats the second and fourth lines of the
previous stanza (as its first and third lines), and also
repeats the third line of the first stanza, as its second
line, and the first line of the first stanza as its fourth.
So the first line of the poem is also the last.
Last stanza:
Line 2 of previous stanza
Line 3 of first stanza
Line 4 of previous stanza
Line 1 of first stanza
NOTE: I found to meter specified for this form but on Shadow Poetry found examples from Iambic Trimeter to Pentameter
Example PoemThen She Married Me

I met her online, whatcha think of that?
In writing workshop I critiqued her work.
Then we played sensual games by chat.
Cutting out by need… the hotel desk clerk.

In writing workshop I critiqued her work.
Her stories aroused a man unfulfilled.
Cutting out by need… the hotel desk clerk.
Our minds connected; our Eros was thrilled.

Her stories aroused a man unfulfilled.
We climbed with words into each other’s head.
Our minds connected; our Eros was thrilled.
This late-night texting led me to her bed.

We climbed with words into each other’s head.
Then we played sensual games by chat.
This late-night texting led me to her bed.
I met her online, whatcha think of that?

(c) Lawrencealot April 2012

Visual Template

Alouette poetry form

The Alouette, created by Jan Turner,
consists of two or more stanzas of 6 lines each, (12 lines or more)
with the following set rules:
Syllabic: 5/5/7/5/5/7
Rhyme Scheme:  aabccb

The form name is a French word meaning ‘skylark’ or larks that fly high,
the association to the lark’s song being appropriate for the musical quality
of this form. The word ‘alouette’ can also mean a children’s song
(usually sung in a group), and although this poetry form is not necessarily
for children’s poetry (but can be applied that way), it is reminiscent of
that style of short lines.  Preference for the meter accent is on the
third syllable of each line.

Example Poem

Visual Template

Regrets

I’m not satisfied
and my dreams have died.
I wanted to do much more.
I lived for the day,
then you went away,
Now I long for distant shore.

My clock’s running out,
I’ve cancer and gout,
but I’m prosperous and free.
My wealth they could keep
if I could but sleep
close to you, across the sea.

© Lawrencealot – April 18,2012

Visual Template

Catena Rondo

Catena Rondo is a stanzaic form created by 20th century Canadian educator, author and poet, Robin Skelton. The form lends itself to the longer poem because of the repetition of lines. It has an unusual cadence within the quatrain, suggesting that L2 and L3 form a couplet leaving L1 and L4 as separate thought units within the quatrain. L2 is then repeated as the first and last lines in the next stanza. The repetition of lines reminds me of the Pantoum but more complicated. The form was found at Poet’s Garret.
The Cateno Rondo is:
 stanzaic, written in any number of 3 or more quatrains (12 lines or more) made up of 2 rhymed lines enveloping a rhymed couplet.
 meter optional at the discretion of the poet.
 rhymed, rhyme scheme ABbA BCcb CDdc DEed etc… (ABbABCcbCDdc, where the capital letter depict lines that are refrains) until the  enveloped couplet of the penultimate quatrain repeats L1 of the poem  MAam bringing the final quatrain back to the original scheme of the  1st quatrain ABbA.
It appear from this scenario that the only line of the last stanza that
could be original is L3 since L1, L2 and L4 are repetitions of the same
numbered lines of the first stanza.
Poet’s Garret makes it easier by suggesting the complete last stanza
be a repetition of the first stanza.
 composed with repetition the 2nd line of each stanza as L1 and L4 of the next stanza.
 The poem should come full circle and end up with the same rhyme scheme used in the 1st quatrain.
 Therefore it is important that 1st and 2nd lines of the poem be strong enough to end the poem.
This form is the brainchild of Robin Skelton,academic, writer, poet and anthologist. It is a Quatrain, and the second line forms a rhyming couplet with the third line and is also used as the first and fourth line of the following stanza. Any number of stanzas can be created this way and the final stanza is a repeat of the first. This gives a rhyme scheme of;
A. B. b. A.…. B. C. c B…. C. D. d. C….finally …
F. A. a. F…..A. B. b. A.….
There is no set meter. Here is an abbreviated example
So Misty through the Dream
The sun does shine upon the reeds.
The lake glistens; a twinkling dance;
On the hills, we three entranced.
The sun does shine upon the reeds.
The lake glistens; a twinkling dance.
Under water breathes like air.
We dip our heels, submerged, we dare.
The lake glistens; a twinkling dance.
Under water breathes like air.
A silvery light consumes the sun.
Deeper down, search we as one.
Under water breathes like air.
Cont till
We three stretch legs upon the lands.
The sun is shining on the reeds.
Up through the silvery lake of seeds
We three stretch legs upon the lands.
The sun does shine upon the reeds.
The lake glistens; a twinkling dance;
On the hills, we three entranced.
The sun does shine upon the reeds.
Moss Macan Ghoill
Some people mistakenly think that this form cannot support shorter forms and that it is only suited to poems over 5 stanza in length. It is because this form encourages longer poems simply because it encourages and makes longer poetry pleasurable. That is not to say that the poet cannot write shorter poems. The minimum of course must have a statement, a link and a closure, that is three stanza. Here is an example:
When Clouds Cry
When clouds cry it’s not because they’re sad
Rather it is because they are content
That most lovers have the right intent
When clouds cry it’s not because they’re sad
Rather it is because they are content
When clouds cry it’s not because they’re sad
Seeing lovers they realise things aren’t bad
Rather it is because they are content
When clouds cry it’s not because they’re sad
Rather it is because they are content
That most lovers have the right intent
When clouds cry it’s not because they’re sad
Ryter Roethicle
Example Poem
Tell Me When You’re Coming

When you come to Reno, tell me.
I buy drinks for my A.P. friends.
A poet’s friendship never ends.
When you come to Reno, tell me.

I buy drinks for my A.P. friends.
A.P. poets expand my life.
Keep me from pestering my wife.
As of yet, I don’t wear Depends.

A.P. poets expand my life.
An autograph I shall require
on one poem that lights my fire,
About love or war, peace or strife.

An autograph I shall require.
Offer good if I’m not in jail
or if I am, if you’ve got bail.
We’ve got a jail that you’ll admire.

Offer good if I’m not in jail
With gals I’ll speak of poetry,
with guys about what interests me,
and let you simply spin a tale.

With gals I’ll speak of poetry.
When you come to Reno, tell me.
Least you’ll get a libation free.
With gals I’ll speak of poetry.

When you come to Reno, tell me.
I buy drinks for my A.P. friends.
You’ve read me- thus I’ll make amends.
When you come to Reno, tell me.

Visual Template

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When you come to Reno, tell me.

Kyrielle

A Kyrielle is a French form of rhyming poetry written in quatrains (a stanza consisting of 4 lines),
 and each quatrain contains a repeating line or phrase as a refrain.
Each line within the poem  consists of only eight syllables.
There is no limit to the amount of stanzas a Kyrielle may have, but three is considered the accepted minimum.
Some popular rhyming schemes for a Kyrielle are: aabB ccb, ddbB (aabBccbddbB),
or abaB, cbcB, dbdB (abaBcbcBdbdB) with B being the refrain.

Related Forms: KyrielleDouble Refrain KyrielleLaiLai Nouveau, Viralai Ancien, Viralai, Virelet

Example Poem
Til the Earless Bunny
Til was a bunny born earless
but that mattered not, still fearless
he played in the hay, and  was  spry.
Sometimes things happen- we wonder why.
Genetic change, says Darwin cause
species to  evolve, now just pause
and consider, penquins can’t fly.
Sometimes things happen- we wonder why.
With ears Til might have heard the threat,
Of near by feet and be here yet
Til lived until he was to die.
Sometimes things happen- we wonder why.
Author Note:
The fate of 17-day-old Til, a bunny with a genetic defect,
was plastered across German newspapers on Thursday,
the same day a small zoo in Saxony was to have presented him
to the world at a press conference.
The cameraman told Bild newspaper he hadn’t seen Til,
who had buried himself in hay, when he took the fateful
step backward Wednesday.
© Lawrencealot – April 8, 2012
Visual Template

Wrapped Refrain Style 1

The Wrapped Refrain, created by Jan Turner, consists of 2 or more stanzas of 6 lines each; Meter:8,8,8,8,12,12 and Rhyme Scheme: aabbcc.

Refrain rule: In each stanza the first 4 syllables (or 4 single-syllable words) in the first line must be the last 4 syllables (or 4 single-syllable words) at the end of the last line. This is what wraps each stanza with a repeated refrain …thus, the Wrapped Refrain.

Optional: The first stanza refrain and last stanza refrain can be joined (or loosely joined) together for the title of the poem.

Example #1:
Let’s Steal Away to Meet Again

Let’s steal away to some place cool,
with rivulets that foam and pool
beneath a wooded, shady shore
that frames the rocks with sycamore.
The afternoon has just begun; without delay,
let’s meet beneath the shaded sun…let’s steal away.

Let’s meet again where once we knew
the buttercups with golden dew;
we scurried to our hidden spot
where I recall forget-me-not.
And, we shall have the promised dreams that we did then,
as we revisit hideaways…let’s meet again.

Copyright © 2007 Jan Turner

Example #2:
A Chance Taken  (Wrapped Refrain)

Let’s toss the dice while hormones rage.
although I’m bright I’m not a sage.
Escorting you I feel I’ve won
a treasure though we’ve just begun.
I’ve met your folks; they seem stable, loving, and nice.
That kind of template should suffice; let’s toss the dice.

The dice were rolled and kids were born.
The raging cooled and you were torn
by boring days and nights alone.
I was at sea and could not phone.
Your searching started then; that’s when the bells were tolled.
Though we parted since, I’m still glad the dice were rolled.

© Lawrencealot – February 13, 2013

Visual Template

 

Mirrored Refrain

The Mirrored Refrain is a rhyming verse form constructed by Stephanie Repnyek.
The poem is formed by three or more quatrains where two lines within
the quatrain are the “mirrored refrain” or alternating refrain.
The rhyme scheme is as follows: xaBA xbAB xaBA xbAB, etc.. (xaABxbABxaBA)
There is no set meter or line-length.
x represents the only lines that do not have to rhyme within the poem.
But you CAN choose to rhyme them.
A and B represent the refrain.

Example Poem

A Night for Us

Her earrings match her blouse and skirt.
I hand the rose to my best friend,
With slow and silent kiss I start.
In brash flamboyant glee I end.

The fireplace shadows seem to flirt
With ceiling as the fire I start.
In brash flamboyant glee I end.
With slow and silent kiss I start.

We finish the night with the kids
at mom’s so ardor will ascend.
With slow and silent kiss I start.
In brash flamboyant glee I end.

Visual Template

Staccato

The Staccato, created by Jan Turner, consists of two or more 6-line stanzas.
 
Rhyme scheme: aabbcc.
*Required internal rhyme scheme interplay between line #1 and line #2 (see below explanation and examples).
 
Meter:  10/10/8/8/10/10
 
Repeats: This form requires a 2-syllable repeat in Lines #3 and #6 as specified below.
 
As in a musical notation, The Staccato poetry form uses
short repeats which are abruptly disconnected
elements. The repeat words are read as rapid-fire speech,
such as staccato music when played or sung.
This form lends itself to strong emotion or instruction
(i.e. military poems: “Charge on! Charge on!” etc.),
a declaration (such as of an event: “We’re married!
We’re married!” etc.), an instruction or emphasis of
human emotion (such as love, hate, longing: “Be mine!
Be mine!” etc.), strong observation (such as
“Those eyes! Those eyes!” etc.) or any similar
situation where a strong staccato repeat is desired.
 
The emphatic two-syllable repeat in this poetry form
is written twice, consecutively, at the beginning of
Line #3 (each repeat in Line #3 is followed by an exclamation mark),
 and once again at the beginning of Line #6
(with or without an exclamation mark in Line #6).
 
Also, Line #2 requires an internal rhyme scheme that rhymes
with a word within Line #1, usually falling on
the 6th syllable (see examples below), but can fall earlier
in those two lines as long as the internal rhyme
matches the syllabic stress in both lines .
 
Example Poem
 
Let’s Write a Staccato
 
A staccato let’s write, right here and now.
It’s simple, really quite forward, here’s how.
Notice! Notice! Internal rhyme
in lines one and two just in time
for a repeated exclamation, yet
notice third repeat may in quiet set.
 
That inversion my dear, was just for show
to make the rhyme quite clear of course you know.
I know! I know! Poor form to teach
Is most certainly a bad breach.
Since this poem with that err I fetter
I know you, my readers, can do better.
 
(c) Lawrencealot – September 11, 2012
 
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