Persian poetry influenced other nations and whilst Turkish poetry also developed it was slightly later and influenced by Persian poetry and was popular in Turkey until the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Early Urdu Mathnawi was at first religious in nature, but because of Persian influence included romance, and adventure and even secular stories.

The Arabic Mathnawi (Called Muzdawidj) has one major difference in that it is presented as a triplet;

a. a. a. / b. b. b. / c. c. c.. pattern, rather than a couplet like the Persian version. 

This Bitter Earth

It went to my head what you said yesterday 

And again the thoughts burn yet become doubts play 

For whenever hearts are involved I must pray. 

How goes these whispers into the heavnelies 

To evoke imaginative displays, please 

Me as much as the cello with bow glories. 

Charms take me away as do the words we speak, Ter

When there are clouds in our eyes they tend to leak 

For far gone days and flung desires bespeak.

Kathy Anderson

Pasted from

My thanks to Kathy Anderson at

See also: Mathnawi.


My example


Taxies (Muzdawidj)


How familiar is that grand old checker cab

where passengers sometimes feel compelled to gab,

for like a barkeep, it’s covered by the tab.

Put tradition and romance off to the side,

Sometimes a taxi’s a must if you’re to ride.

Frequently it’s hard to find a better guide.


© Lawrencealot – February 21 2015

Enclosed Triplet

The Enclosed triplet is a very interesting form and if the a.b.a..b.c.b. format is used it forms the basis for the Sicilian Triplet , Terza Rima, using the enclosed word as continuity, or where lines or words are repeated there is the Villanelle, or later the Terzanelle.
The alternative left with is to have the centre unrelated completely as shown below


How would we know if our feelings are low 
So low that teardrops stain porcelain faces 
When faces are painted a warm loving glow 

Which glows through when a lover embraces 
If his embraces are few how may we know 
Shall love flow when a tender heart races. 

How can it be when true love hurts so much 
So much it can break in two loving hearts 
When hearts may respond to a sensual touch. 

For touch prevents them from falling apart 
Playing a part of true lovers games as such 
To stop love from hurting is a work of art. 

It could be that love came much too late 
That it was never to be for you and me 
For the love we had then was our fate. 

Divena Collins

Pasted from
My thanks to Divena Collins of thepoetsgarret.

My example

Abhorrent ( Enclosed Triplet)

Some words I think I must abhor
for they are words I seldom use
but now I’ll try to use them more.

Like pardon, when I mean excuse
me madam, will you move your ass?
Or, loose by people who mean lose.

Correcting them, when done with class,
requires that I must bite my tongue;
when poets do it, it’s most crass.

© Lawrencealot – February 18, 2015

Visual template

Enclosed Triplet


This is a poetry form created by Erin A. Thomas, writing on as Zahhar.

What is a Trisect?


  The trisect is a three-part poetic form that is inspired by its visual counterpart, the tryptych. I wanted to use the concept of the tryptych as a vehicle for developing my use of verbal depiction, but I found this difficult when I attempted to do so without a solid framework to work from. So, after much thought, I created the rules by which such a poem—which I named the trisect—would be written.

  It is not very often that a poetic form has semantic requirements beyond that of repeating a few words or phrases, such as with the sestina or villanelle. But, since I wanted to use this form to make a detailed study of verbal depiction over an extended period of time, I realized that there should be several semantic requirements designed to obstruct the natural tendency toward prosaic exposition, a trap that even the most seasoned of poets finds difficult to escape.

  As such, I could see that the trisect should never attempt to sell an idea or explain a concept, whether that concept be a personal experience or the interpretation of any material or mental object. It should, however, thoroughly exercise and develop ones powers of observation, a sense of relational association between things, and the use of depictive and metaphoric language.

  So the trisect should never explain itself to the reader or give itself away. The goal, then, would be to depict observations and experiences using only imagery and metaphor. This provides the reader with a way of interpreting the words purely from his or her own experience rather than, as is customary, being told what to think, feel, and believe about them. I could see that as I write my verbal tryptych, the trisect, I should, as far as possible, use depiction in such a way as to obfuscate my own interpretation of what is being portrayed so that the words create a series of visually (sensationally) depicted associations from my observations, with a special focus on particular objects, from which the reader can derive his or her own experience.

  The success of a trisect poem with a given reader, then, would be gauged by the level of interest he or she takes in it, the degree of significance he or she ascribes to it, and how much or how powerful of an experience he or she derives from it. If the reader has a vivid, memorable experience despite the abstract nature of the language, then I think something went right. With this in mind, I developed the rules of the trisect form with the hope of maximizing such potential.


  The trisect poem is defined by both structural and semantic rules. The structural rules are intended simply to create an appropriate, adaptable frame for the trisect’s content. I think this is important because they create a challenge that forces the poet to rise to the occasion, inspiring a conscious refinement of language and flow. The semantic rules are essential to the depictive nature of the form. Without them the poet can just say whatever he or she feels and thinks without actually exercising the use of verbal depiction, which is the entire point behind the form. These rules are also intended to promote the use of abstract language, which should create a surrealist feel, thus ensuring a strong, visually potent verbal tryptych. So bear this in mind as you study the rules below, whether you’re reading this article to better understand the idea behind the form or to learn how to try your own hand at it.

  Structural rules

  1. The trisect is always titled.
  2. It is organized into three individual poems that I refer to as segments.
  3. Each segment is always subtitled.
  4. There are four stanzas in each segment.
  5. Each stanza must be a tercet or a quatrain.
  6. Each line must be between two and seven feet long (dimeters to heptameters).

  These rules provide a canvas and a frame for the word-painting without being overly restrictive. A segment can be 12 to 16 lines long, and lines can be two to seven feet long. This allows for brevity by using only tercets with shorter lines, but it also permits the necessary space to complete a more complex depiction by allowing quatrains to be used with longer lines. If you are uncertain about the use of meter, you can visit my articles on verbal meter, starting with “Discovering the Iamb and the Trochee“.

  Now for the semantic rules, which are far more restrictive, but provide the real meat for the purposes of this form.

  Semantic rules

  1. No first person personal pronouns may be used anywhere in the poem.First person personal pronouns such asImemymine, and myself may not be used anywhere in the poem. This includes the title and subtitles. The same goes for inclusive personal pronouns such as we and ours.

If you have to use such personal pronouns to express something, then you should use another poetic form or free verse to do so. These pronouns generally are only used to express romantic ideals or personal feelings and opinions. The language of the trisect is not at all romantic or self-expressive, but depictive—And purely depictive.

  1. Segment one depicts an item without naming it.As far as possible, use imagery and metaphor to depict a given item of focus without naming it. This is by no means limited to mere visual descriptions. To truly depict something, the brain must stretch (sometimes painfully) to include other sorts of information about it. Such information can include the item’s textures, smells, environment, history, development, behavior, relation to other items and time, and much more. The observations used to depict the item will be colored by your own perception, experience, and understanding of it. This is only way self-expression comes into play, which will happen one way or the other in each of the three segments.To help clarify, read the first segments of each of the following trisect poems in relation to what their items of focus are:

Trisect Poem

Focus of Segment One

E merge nce



modern canoe

Three Ravens

figurine of a raven


the LEGO brick

  1. Segment two depicts a more complex item without naming it.The item of focus for segment two is only more complex in relation to the item of focus for segment one. So, the item depicted by segment one can itself be complex, but the item depicted by segment two must be—or at least seem to be—more complex.

If segment one depicts a flower petal, for instance, then segment two could depict the flower itself because it is more complex by comparison. For another example, if segment one depicts the earth, then segment two could depict the sun, the solar system, or the galaxy because any of these would be more complex by comparison.

Again, to help clarify ways of depicting something without naming it, I recommend reading segment two from each the same poems:

Trisect Poem

Focus of Segment Two

E merge nce

the automobile


the Yukon river—so by extension, ‘a river’

Three Ravens

a raven


the LEGO construct—things made from legos

  1. Segment two includes a reference to the item depicted by segment one.This is of course done without naming it. The reference can be vague and peculiar to your own experience and understanding. Going back again to the four poems, I’ll illustrate key phrases from their second segments which reference the item depicted by the first:

Trisect Poem


Type of Reference

E merge nce

“… an alley’s dirt”



“a fleck of lost humanity”

relational metaphor

Three Ravens

“… / where … an icon lures”

location and metaphor


“Imagination …”

application and association

  1. Segment three depicts an event or process without naming it.This is the crux of the trisect. Generally speaking, the items depicted in the first and second segments are in some way associated with or involved in the event or process depicted by the third segment. Again, and I can’t stress this enough, the depicted event or process may not be named—directly denoted.For instance, if you are depicting a car accident, you would not use any words that could be part of a direct denotation of the event, like “car”, “automobile”, “wreck”, or “accident”—Words found in such denotive phrases as “automobile accident” or “car wreck”. Instead, the language will focus on depicting individual, potentially telling elements and aspects of the event or process. This could involve phrases such as, “crushing contact”, “black lightning struck”, “chrome bending shock”—Just to give an idea.

    The event or process depicted may of course be compounded, for they will rarely stand alone anyway.

    Returning again to the four poems I’ve been using as examples, ponder the third segment of each poem in relation to the event or process it depicts:

Trisect Poem

Focus of Segment Two

E merge nce

hit and run & near death experience


an animistic experience on the Yukon river

Three Ravens

a dream experience involving flight and metamorphosis


development of cognition through explorative play

  1. Segment three includes references to the items depicted by segment one and segment two.This is the same idea as that explained above under the fourth point. As I did there, I’ll indicate key phrases from the third segment of each example poem which reference back to the items depicted in the first and second segments of that poem.References back to segment one’s item of focus:

Trisect Poem


Type of Reference

E merge nce

“shelter shattered open like a nest”

usage and state


“… the floating soul …”

usage and relational metaphor

Three Ravens

“… in the shade of gaze …”

action and behavior


“Individual colors snap …”

application and metaphor

References back to segment two’s item of focus:

Trisect Poem


Type of Reference

E merge nce

“black lightning”



“from out the wash … floating soul”

spatial and relational attributes

Three Ravens

“… a figurine”

partial denotation


“impressionist expressions of the mind”


This list is by no means complete. The third segment of some of these poems have multiple references to the items depicted by each of the previous segments. But this should give some idea.

  1. Subtitles do not explicitly denote the focus of their segments.The subtitle captures some attribute or aspect of a segment’s focus through metaphor or some other type of reference, but does not identify it directly by name or denotation.
  2. The poem’s title must avoid giving away the overall focus of the poem or any of its segments.Just as the subtitle should avoid giving away the focus of its segment, the title should avoid giving away the focus of the poem in a similar fashion. Rely on metaphor or some other associative type of reference when deciding a title.

  The rules are actually easier to follow than they might seem. The challenge is in following them well, to good effect. This can only be discovered via trial and error, as I have been doing with the form until now.

Pasted from <>

E merge nce


walls of paper kept the world at bay

cubes of indistinction none would see

where settled there within a watcher peered

the dusty brown a perfect camouflage

propped against a wall or by a hedge

passed a thousand times by reckless feet

corrugated fibers held the wind

so that the space inside was made to form

a child’s island haven from the storm

sometimes it was a spaceship among the stars

sometimes a moon-base on a barren scape

sometimes a roving tank all battle-scarred

but always it provided safe escape


shaped from molten vats of ore

molded by a burning greed

riveted with violent force

pieces merge to fill a need

manifest from heavy silence

oils surge and slowly drip

uncertainty across the roads

power charges through its frame

explosions channeled in its chest

to serve a senseless master’s will

tires grind an alley’s dirt

shadows steer a ghostly wheel

the phantom grill athirst for blood


black lightning strikes the living clay

evaporating life from every limb

suspending consciousness alone

void of breath yet interfused with fear

tires spin throughout the dark

an engine roars above a twisted neck

inches from a lifeless face

psychic tethers anchored in vibration

a heedless monster lumbers back

the shelter shattered open like a nest

blood resumes its former course

and wild bones reanimate the flesh

a figure stands and staggers numb with pain

screams and scampers filled with terror

headlights rear and fade away

a child’s bones left fractured like his mind

  The first segment focuses on cardboard. I used to create cardboard forts when I was a child—sometimes very elaborate—and hang out in them all day long. Some of them would be portable, and some would be built in vacant lots or alleyways blocks or miles from home. They were always very well camouflaged, so my little hideout would remainmy little hideout. The portable ones I’d often setup at the edge of a busy parking lot, made to look like a pile of scrap cardboard, where I’d hang out and just watch people without them knowing. These simple forts were a safe haven for me, a private place to go and be away from troubles and worries. And I had my share.

  The second segment focuses on the automobile, the car. I remember reading up on their manufacturing process and design, and the primary materials used in their construction, before starting this segment.

  The third segment focuses on a little mishap I had in one of those cardboard forts as a 14 year old, which involved a car. It was in an alleyway a few blocks from home. City blocks. Los Angeles City blocks. About a mile away at least. I had some big fight with my mother that day and decided I’d just have my own space that night in a cardboard fort I and a friend had built a day or two before. It was a beautiful fort, with four separate compartments, each of which were big enough to lay out flat in. The whole thing was masterfully camouflaged with various sorts of debris from the area, including dead palm branches and branches of other sorts. In the end it looked like a slash pile, just a bunch of branches and other random materials tossed into a pile—but it was hollow, and there were access points.

  That night as I slept a car slammed into the fort and ran over my right arm, shoulder, and neck, breaking the upper arm longways from near the elbow across to the top near the ball socket, and blew a piece out of the ball socket itself. My neck was severely sprained—which is of course a miracle. It was possible to make out the tire treads on my throat. How I happened to be aligned such that the tire didn’t snap my head one way and pop my skull off the spine like a bottle opener I have no idea.

  This was my first NDE. I have no way to prove it, but I just know. I know what I experienced, and I was dead for at least a moment—and a moment is long enough to be dead. Sometime I’ll dedicate some poetry and discussion to that experience. But as I “returned”, after the car had somehow managed to back up off me without running over my neck a second time, I sprang up in a panic, and it came toward me again, then stopped, then backed all the way down the alley and around the far corner, as if in a mad rush to escape affiliation with the mishap. I’ll never forget the sight of those headlights.

  I was near a series of hotels. And each time I knocked, with my left arm since right wouldn’t respond, the owners would come to the door and I’d ask for help and they’d slam the door on me. It sucked. In this manner I ended up up making my way half a mile to an apartment complex my mom had lived in a year or so before, where some people knew me, and an ambulance was called.

Pasted from

Thanks to the Erin for his efforts and example.


• The Troisieme is written in 3 tercets followed by a couplet. It was introduced by Viola Berg. The content is broken into 4 parts, an introduction in the 1st tercet, an expansion in the 2nd tercet, a parallel or contrast in the 3rd tercet and a summary or conclusion in the couplet. 

The  Troisieme is:
○ stanzaic, written in 3 tercets followed by a couplet.
○ syllabic, L1-L9 are 9 syllables each, L10,L11 are 11 syllables each.
○ unrhymed.

Pasted from

My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

Promised Ascension (Troisieme)

Man alone will plot against his kind
because of words one man deemed were true.
They promote a life beyond this realm.

Dismiss all logic! Faith overcomes!
The next life counts promises much more.
Believe those words and your pain dissolves.

That others think those words are fiction
marks them somehow as threats deserving
Your enmity lest you come to doubt.

The plots and counter-plots marred reality
and placed our morality below the wolf.

© Lawrencealot – February 5, 2015

Englyn penfyr

Englyn penfyr, én-glin pén-fir or short ended englyn in the old style, is the 1st codified Official Welsh Meter, anEnglyn. The oldest Welsh poetry in manuscript (early 9th century) was found written in the margin of the Juvencus Metrical Version of the Psalms, preserved in the Cambridge University Library. It is said to be stanzas written in praise of the Trinity in the englyn penfyr meter. Both the Englyn penfyr and the Englyn milwr are associated with “primitive Britain” and were out of vogue by the 12th century.

The englyn penfyr is:

  • stanzaic, written in any number of tercets.
  • syllabic, a 10 syllable line followed by two 7 syllable lines.
  • rhymed, mono rhymed, the main rhyme (the dominant rhyme of the stanza) of L1 found in the last half of the line followed by caesura end rhymes with L2 and L3.
  • composed with an addendum, a “gair cyrch” in L1 (syllables in the last half of a line that follow the main rhyme marked by caesura. The gair cyrch end rhyme is to be echoed or consonated as secondary rhyme in the 1st half of L2. The caesura often appears as a dash.)


Y wlad mewn gwisg o flodau -yn galw

Dwy galon i lwybrau

Yr ifanc drwy yr hafau

x x x x x x x A x b

x x b x x x A

x x x x x x A

The countryside, in its floral dress, calls

two hearts to roam the paths

of the young through summer days.

by Dosbarth Tanyroes “Y Flwyddn” 20th century found in Singing in Chains by Mererid Hopwood

Mud laps by Judi Van Gorder

Ripples in the mud pool fanned ~ far and wide

spreading inside-out to land

in small laps upon the sand.

Oprah by Judi Van Gorder

She sings her own tune – in touch with her soul

she shares her goal, grasps the moon

with wisdom none can impugn.

First Light by DC Martinson

Night before a Christmas morn – stars tarry;

Hymns carry a world so torn

To be saved by God’s Yet-born.

Night before a Christmas morn – all is seen

Red and green. Our hearts, forsworn,

Still are gifts to God’s Low-born.

Night before a Christmas morn – in the dark,

Holy spark. Candles have borne

Ev’ry soul to God’s High-born.

Dreams by Stephen Arndt

Come, let the ember lights burn low; no more

_____Let flames roar and flare, for so

_____Drowsing dreams may freely flow;

And let me dream what lies in store (I know

_____Men can’t show me that far shore

_____Which my plodding might explore).

Our dreamings mimic what might be, for they

_____Mold the clay to cast a key

_____Opening new worlds to see.

I am not deaf to what dreams say. Watch me:

_____I am free to stop and stay

_____Or to wend my winding way.

Are dreams like dice on which to bet? How few

_____Pay what’s due on piled-up debt!

_____What they grudge is what you get.

I know my dreams may not come true, and yet

_____Why forget that if they do,

_____I shall fly to where they flew?

Pasted from

My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.


My attempt

Evil Must be Fought (Englyn penfyr)

I’d really like to preach peace – but I can’t.
Can’t chant for the wars to cease.
Can’t call to disband police.

When attacked you must defend – or else die.
You ask why do some descend?
Evil and greed I contend.

When evil tried to impose – and by force
I’d endorse those who arose,
though it was not peace they chose.

© Lawrencealot – December 10, 2014


Related Welsh Form are HERE.

Visual template

Englyn penfyr

Englyn byr cwca

Englyn byr cwca is a shortened crooked rhyme and is not one of the 24 Official Welsh Meters.

Englyn bry cwca is:
• stanzaic, written in any number of tercets.
• syllabic, 7-10-6 syllable lines.
• rhymed, rhyme scheme aba, cdc, etc. The L2 end rhyme appears internally midway in L3.
x x x x x x a
x x x x x x x x x b
x x b x x a

A Look Forward byJudi Van Gorder

Vows, “in sickness and in health”,
they’re hard to see when strong and young in love,
time is part of the wealth.
But years turn and visions blur,
the body slows and vitality goes,
hopes and woes are deferred.

Here we are in winter’s dawn,
through grace or luck our days continue bright.
We shun the night upon
which one life will first depart.
Only “death and taxes” they say, “are sure”.
mature, we play our part.

Pasted from\
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

AM and PM (Englyn bry cwca)

Relentlessly time moves on
with urging when we’re young; we’d like a blitz
until it’s almost gone.

In the winter of life’s year
time slows our body making us aware
we ought share our lives cheer.

© Lawrencealot – December 9, 2014

Visual template

Englyn bry cwca


The Triversen, (triple verse sentence), is a sentence broken into three lines. It has also been referred to as a “verset”, a surge of language in one breath.

The Triversen was originated by William Carlos Williams as a “native American” poetic form of the 20th century. According to Lewis Turco in his Book of Forms, it is “one of the most innovative things done to modern free-verse.” It introduced the “variable foot” to free verse. As best as I can understand, the “variable foot” is a phrase or portion of a sentence contained within a line.

The Triversen is:
• accentual. The rhythm of normal speech, employing 1 to 4 strong stresses per line.
• stanzaic, written in any number of tercets. Each tercet is a sentence broken into 3 uneven lines, each an independant clause.
• grammatical. The sentence is broken by line phrasing or lineating or sense units. There should be 3 units. L1 is a statement of fact or observation, L2 and L3 should set the tone, imply a condition or associated idea, or carry a metaphor for the original statement.
• unrhymed.
• alliterated. Alliteration accentuates stress.

Eventide by Judi Van Gorder 8-20-05

Sunset silence is interrupted
by a cursory

sun slides 
behind the horizon.

Twilight arrives 
with a hic-up 
and a wink.


On Gay Wallpaper by William Carlos Williams

The green-blue ground
is ruled with silver lines
to say the sun is shining.

And on this moral sea
of grass or dreams like flowers
or baskets of desires

Heaven knows what they are
between cerulean shapes”
laid regularly round.

Mat roses and tridentate
leaves of gold
threes, threes, and threes.

Three roses and three stems
the basket floating
standing in the horns of blue.

Repeated to the ceiling
to the windows
where the day

Blow in
the scalloped curtains to
the sound of rain

Copied from:

My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

water lilies

Water Lilies (Triversen)

Water lilies on pond’s surface
lie in wait
just as though expecting us.

Posed on pads in proud profusion
as they might for Claude Monet;
only now, awaiting us.

Water lilies seem eternal
you and I
have just begun.

© Lawrencealot – August 27, 2014

Depiction Prime

The Depiction Prime was created by Ashrus of Allpoetry.
It is:
A 6 line poem.
Stanzaic: having two three-line stanzas.
Syllabic: each stanza having lines of 4/6/5 syllables.
Formulaic: First stanza depicts the appearance of the subject of the poem, but never tells what the subject is. This stanza just describes its colour, look, beauty or style.
The First line of the next stanza may give a hint about the subject. Last two lines reveal the subject matter clearly. Lucid language is preferred in these three lines.
Rhyme pattern: xxa xxa. Last lines of both stanzas must rhyme.
Meter unspecified.

My example poem

Super Moon (Depiction Prime)

Tangerine arc
peeks over hill, becomes
crescent, then an orb.

Perigee time
make plains and craters seem
too grand to absorb.

© Lawrencealot – July 13, 2014

Visual Template

Depiction Prime



The Kerf

• The Kerf is a verse form in tercets and is attributed to Marie Adams.

The Kerf is:
○ a poem in 12 lines made up of 4 tercets.
○ syllabic, 6/7/10 per line.
○ rhymed, rhyme scheme abc abc dec dec.

Pasted from

My Thanks to Judi Van Gorder for the wonderful resource at PMO

My Example Poem
If She Says “What ?” (The Kerf)

You could be wrong, you know,
and perhaps you could be right,
and either way it seldom matters much.

You never need to show
your correctness out of spite.
Conceding may help keep you out of dutch.

If your wife should say “What”,
when your statement’s barely out,
it’s possible, you’re somehow out of touch.

Try this to save your butt!
“That’s Fred’s thinking- I’m in doubt.
I wonder darlin’, what you think of such?”

© Lawrencealot – March 28, 2014
Visual Template

Rime Couée

Rime Couée is a tail-rhymed verse form of 12th century Provencal troubadours. Though it originated in France, it is thought to be the predecessor of the more popular Scot form, the Burns Stanza. 

The Rime Couée is:
  • stanzaic, written in any number of sixains made up of two tercets.
  • accentual, folk meter of normal speech. L1,L2, L4, L5 are longer lines of a similar length, L3 and L6 are shorter lines of the same length.
  • rhymed, rhyme scheme aabccb, ddeffe etc.
Thanks to Judi Van Gorder for the wonderful PMO resource.

My example Poem

St. Joseph Lighthouse – Lake Michigan        (Rime Couée)
St Joseph Lighthouse

When Old Man Winter struts his stuff
to show that he is good enough
he paints in white.
Unlike the art-work done by Spring
where colors touch most everything
pastel or bright.

His canvass can be anything
a bridge a tree, an old coil spring
that’s left outside.
St. Joseph lighthouse shown above
received full measure of his love.
I’m satisfied.

©Lawrencealot – February 8, 2014

Photo Credit:  Facebook  – unknown, Rights belong to photographer
Visual Template