Pathways for the Poet by Viola Berg (1977) is a book for and by educators. Classic poetic forms as well as many invented forms which appear to have been invented as teaching tools or exercizes for use in workshops or classrooms are included. Some of these invented forms I have found in use in internet poetry communities, a testament to their staying power. On this page I include the metric invented forms found there in which appear to be exclusive to the community of educators from whom Ms. Berg drew her support. I have yet to find these in any other source. I have included the syllabic invented forms on a separate page. Whether classroom exercise or sharpening your skill as a writer, some of these forms can be fun to play with.

• The Boutonniere seems to be an exercise in writing in catalectic trochaic meter. In other words, the stress comes first in each metric foot, but the last foot of the line, drops the last unstressed syllable. Trochaic tetrameter would be Su / Su/ Su/ Su. Catalectic trochaic tetrameter would be Su/Su/Su/S. Created by Ann Byrnes Smith.

The Boutonniere is:
○ written in 13 lines.
○ metered, catalectic trochaic tetrameter. Su/Su/Su/S.
○ rhymed, rhyme scheme A¹A² bbcccbddd A¹A².
○ refrained, L1 is repeated as L12 and L2 is repeated as L13.

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My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

Dream Instead (Boutonniere)

One’s beliefs it really seems,
have less weight than do their dreams.
Focus on your dreams each day,
Divvy up your work and play.
Muslims, Christians, Buddhists too
Hold quite different points of view;
all of them cannot be true.
all but we are wrong they say.
Dogma serves to cloud the mind
setting forth a path assigned.
Thinkers dream when they’re inclined.
One s beliefs it really seems,
have less weight than do their dreams.

© Lawrencealot – September 1, 2014

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English Madrigal

English Madrigal
Type: Structure, Metrical Requirement, Repetitive Requirement, Rhyme Scheme Requirement, Isosyllabic
Description: Three verses of iambic pentameter: a triplet, a quatrain, and a sestet with the following rhyme and repetition scheme: AB1B2 abAB1 abbAB1B2.
Attributed to: Geoffrey Chaucer
Origin: English
Schematic: Rhyme and Repetition: AB1B2 abAB1 abbAB1B2

Meter: Iambic pentameter = xX xX xX xX xX

Rhyme alone: abb abab abbabb

Repetition alone: 123 xx12 xxx123
Line/Poem Length: 13

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My Thanks to Charles L. Weatherford for his work on the wonderful poetrybase resource.

English Madrigal is a short lyrical verse with a love theme. The tone is almost always complimentary. There have been several structures associated with the Madrigal through its history from Italy where it began, to France, Spain and England, but most sources agree that no specific frame has been dominant. Although most are short poems there are also long madrigals that have nothing to do with love. 

According to the NPEOPP the only Madrigals in England before 1588 were simply translations of Italian Madrigals and the earliest true English Madrigal was by Philip Sidney, a 15 line poem with mixed 6 and 10 syllable rhymed lines. There have been many other forms used by English poets since then. 

One of the most important collections of English Madrigals without music was written by William Drummond, a Scot poet who wrote 80 Madrigals in hisPoems of 1616. The frame used is loose but does show some consistencies. There is also a stricter verse form recorded in Lewis Turco’s Book of Forms and on-line at Poetry Base that attributes the English Madrigal to 14th century English poet, Geoffrey Chaucer. I include both below.
• The English Madrigal as written by Drummond is:
○ a poem in 6 to 14 lines.
○ syllabic, written with mixed 6-10 syllable lines. The 1st line is always 6 syllables.
○ rhymed, rhyme schemes are variable, one scheme is abcabddccee.
○ a complimentary love poem. 

Her Passing from Poems of 1616 by William Drummond (1585-1649) an English Madrigal 

THE beauty and the life 
— Of life’s and beauty’s fairest paragon 
—O tears! O grief!—hung at a feeble thread 
To which pale Atropos had set her knife; 
— The soul with many a groan 
— Had left each outward part, 
And now did take his last leave of the heart: 
Naught else did want, save death, ev’n to be dead; 
When the afflicted band about her bed, 
Seeing so fair him come in lips, cheeks, eyes,
Cried, ‘Ah! and can Death enter Paradise?’
• The English Madrigal as inspired by Chaucer (sometimes called a Short English Madrigal) is:
○ a poem in 13 lines, a tercet, quatrain, and sixain in that order.
○ metered, iambic pentameter.
○ rhymed with refrain, rhyme scheme AB1B2 abAB1 abbAB1B2 Caps are repeated lines.

A Unicorn for Allexa by Rex Allen Brewer

Please Allexa, do dream of Unicorns. 
Like fantasy magic they come at night, 
love and innocence painted in star light. 

Seldom seen on clear days or sunlit morns, 
but night or day, they know what’s wrong or right. 
It’s a good thing to dream of Unicorns. 
Like fantasy magic they come at night. 

In life you shall find both roses and thorns, 
even the good at times are forced to fight. 
Stand tall Allexa don’t give in to fright, 
and remember, do dream of Unicorns. 
Like fantasy magic they come at night, 
love and innocence painted in star light.

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My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource


My example poem

What I Should Have Told My Daughter (English Madrigal)

Remember Suzy, lovely dreams come true
so dream of love and settle not for less.
Be not so anxious for that first caress.

The kind of man you get depends on you.
A fallen apple does not much impress.
Be patient dear, for lovely dreams come true.
So dream of love and settle not for less.

The pressing, selfish man you must eschew
though urges will be strong, I shall confess.
Your prince will come and you’ll not have to guess.
You need not rush, for lovely dreams come true.
So dream of love and settle not for less.
Be not so anxious for that first caress.

© Lawrencealot – August 9, 2014

Visual Template
I have chosen to present the stricter Chaucer version, and interpreting from the poem A Unicorn for Allexa by Rex Allen Brewer shall allow the ending half of line 1 to suffice for the refrain requirement.

English Madrigal

Three-peat Refrain

The Three-peat Refrain was invented by Mark Andrew J. Terry of Allpoetry.

It is a 13 line poem.
It is stanzaic, consisting of two quintets and a three line tail.
It is syllabic: 4/4/8/8/6
It is metric written in iambic dimeter, trimeter, and tetrameter.
It is rhymed: AbbcbAddcdAcd
Where the first line is a Refrain, repeated in each stanza.

I Dream of Pathos
If in this world
when tears are shed
a golden cup would catch what’s bled
by eyes whose pain is free-unfurled
and all of us have read
If in this world
each human heart
could empathize and do their part
to stand between the pain that swirled
what greed and bleed impart
If in this world
pathos uncurled
and guided every choice’s chart
© Mark Andrew J. Terry, June 2014
Ddoubletake comment on All Poetry – Wonderful! The form seems familiar, but I’m not really familiar enough with form poetry to place it. This is highly emotional without being overdone, which I appreciate. Lovely sentiment.
Well, the form seems like it deserves to be familiar, but did not exist in my list so I wrote the following to Mark:
The form you’ve used-
unknown to me
has turned on high my OCD
and stimulates my need to know
and I can’t let it be.
The form you’ve used-
unique for sure
has properties with much allure.
My ignorance can’t be excused
for knowledge is the cure.
The form you’ve used
you must bestow
that it’s name may endure.
…and he bestowed the name….
Visual Template
Three-peat Refrain


This is a new refrain poetry form invented by Elizabeth Reed, aka Silverechoes on Allpoetry.
The form is made up of 13 lines – two six-line stanzas and one final line. The two stanzas tell the majority of the story, and the first line of the second stanza should serve as the inspiration for the title (though not required). The last line will be a restatement or rephrasing of the first line of the second stanza. Rhyme scheme and corresponding syllable counts are as follows:
a (8 syllables)
b (9 syllables)
C (10 syllables)
a (8)
b (9)
C (10) (uses same word as line 3 for end-line rhyme)
D (8)
e (9)
F (10)
d (8)
e (9)
F (10) (same end word as line 9)
D (8 OR 10 syllables) (same end word as line 7)
In the rhyme pattern indicated by abCabCDeFdeFD, the lines indicated with capitals contain word refrains.
Example Poem
We Missed the Dance
“Does my old cowboy hat look fine?”
you asked me just as we were leaving.
I turned and looked, and ran into the door.
“Well dear, I d say you look divine,”
“What hat?”-  My eyes were they deceiving?
There were those pokey things that I adore.
“If we perchance can miss the dance
and settle later just for dining
I think I’d rather stay at home instead
exploring signs of our romance
which we can do while we’re reclining.”
With that she led me to our bed instead..
And so we once again have missed the dance.
© Lawrencealot – September 10, 2013
(Notice: Being rebellious, I chose phonic identity, instead of absolute identity in choosing the “C” refrain.


Trimeric tri-(meh)-rik n: a four stanza poem in which the first stanza has four lines
and the last three stanzas have three lines each, with the first line of each repeating
the respective line of the first stanza.
The sequence of lines, then, is abcd, b – -, c – -, d – -.
There is no line length, meter, or rhyme requirement or prohibition.
Example Poem
Whisky Works
He zig-zagged up the steep hill
much too drunk to walk a line.
Winter weather laid down a chill
with ice on that steep incline.
Much too drunk to walk a line
he headed home, had time still.
Unless he fell he’d be fine.
Winter weather laid down a chill
as he staggered up the hill.
He’d make it;  he had the will.
With ice on that steep incline
(he had lots of time to kill)
his anti-freeze worked just fine.
© Lawrencealot – April 29, 2012