This is a form invented by Lisa Morris, aka Streambed on Allpoetry.

Streambed is so grounded in sonnetry, that it spills over into most everything she writes, but in this case she has decided to become mischievous and play in the muddied waters of Roundeaus and Rondels as well. The SonnetyRondel might better be described as a SonnetyRondeau because this form uses the rentrement or first phrase of L1 as a refrain rather than the full line as in the Rondel.

  • Stanzaic: Three quatrains
  • Metric: Iambic pentameter and di-meter
  • Rhyme Scheme: abaB baaB abaB|
  • Refrained

Streambed’s Example


My Heart is True

My heart is true and ever will be so;
it murmurs love in words, which always new
pour from this ink, and catch you in their flow;
my heart is true.

I know the richness and the truths of you
and listen to your sighs when they ache low
and all your desert’s storming sandy blow.
My heart is true.

The years to come will ease the pain you know
with tenderness, which took deep root and grew
while beauty then, we’ll cultivate and sow;
my heart is true.

© Lisa Morris

My Example


You Know My Mind

You know my mind and always think of me;
and even when my acts may seem unkind,
you know I never meant for them to be,
you know my mind.

You know the warts and flaws you’ll sometimes find
that other people simply cannot see,
and disregard them – how sweet love can be!
You know my mind.

I’m sure I know at least a thing or three –
and love is thoughtful, if it is not blind!
You tolerate my spontaneity.
You know my mind.

© Lawrence Eberhart – July 4, 2016

Top Glose

Top Glose
Type: Structure, Repetitive Requirement, Other Requirement
Description: A variant of the Glose where the repetition from the texte appears as the first line of the glossing verse.
Attributed to: “The Dread Poet Roberts”
Origin: American

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My thanks to Charles L. Weatherford for his years of work on the wonderful Poetrybase resource.

Since there are numerable differences in the interpretation of the proper formal requirement of the Glose, sub-forms have been invented which specifically mandate requirements which might or might not be chosen when writing a Glose.

The glose originated in Spain, where it is known as the glosa.

I am presenting here only one reference to the Glose itself, from a site which appears no longer active, (November 2014) but which presented the following fine overview.

The Glosa was used by poets of the Spanish court and dates back to the late 14th and early 15th century. For some reason, it has not been particularly popular in English. A search of the Internet search will uncovered a meager number of brief references to the form. From the limited information it is learned that the traditional structure has two parts. The first part is called the texte or cabeza. It consists of the first few lines (usually four) or the first stanza (usually a quatrain) from a well-known poem or poet. It has become permissible to use lines from a less well-known poet, or even from ones own verse.
The second part is the glose or glosa proper. This is a “gloss on,” an expansion, interpretation or explanation of the texte. The formal rule describes the glosa as consisting of four ten-line stanzas, with the consecutive lines of the texte being used as the tenth line (called the glossing) of each stanza. Furthermore, lines six and nine must rhyme with the borrowed tenth. Internal features such as length of lines, meter and rhyme are at the discretion of the poet. Examples of this will be found in this chapbook collection.
As with most poetic forms, unless dictated by strict contest requirements, poets have taken the liberty to vary the format. In addition to the glosa’s traditional ten-line stanzas, one will find 4-, 5- and 8-liners. They will be found written in free verse, with meter, and with rhyme. In the shorter variations. You will find variations in which the first line of each stanza (taken from the original texte) repeated again as the last line – added as a refrain. When the first line is repeated as the refrain at the end of a poem the stanza form is referred to as an Envelope.
Another variation of a short glosa poem has to do with the location of the borrowed line. It can be the first line, the last line, or one inserted into the body of the stanza. Yet another variation is the use of the first four lines of a prose piece as the texte.
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Restated specification for the Top Glose
The first part is called the texte or cabeza. It consists of the first few lines (usually four) or the first stanza (usually a quatrain) from a well-known poem or poet. It has become permissible to use lines from a less well-known poet, or even from ones own verse. It is presented as an epigram beneath the title of your own poem
The following Glose or Glosa proper is
Stanzaic: consisting of as many stanzas, as there are lines in your texte,
each having a line length of the poets choosing
Metered: With a consistent meter of the poet’s choosing
Rhymed or not with a pattern of the poet’s choosing
Formulaic: Each line of the texte shall be the first line of a stanza.

Related forms listed here: Glose, Double GloseTop Glose


My Example

Where I’m Most at Home (Top Glose)

After  the opening stanza of
“This Place that I Call Home”  by Mvincent
” I am a lover of tall mountain peaks
when softly draped with blankets of fresh snow;
of alpine lakes and gleaming waterfalls,
slow running streams that teem with rainbow trout—”
I am a lover of tall mountain peaks
and desert flowers nestled twixt the sage
which climbs the foothills ’til it’s all replaced
by pine and spruce and fir.  Much flora seeks
out places in pre-alpine meadow– a stage
where it’s a hit that is too soon displaced.
When softly draped with blankets of fresh snow
my backyard even seems a visual treat.
The mountains dress in heavy coats of white
The snow depth measured in the scores of feet.
The hearty play and ski to their delight.
The mountains save  that pack so life can grow.
Of alpine lakes and gleaming waterfalls
I dream as my begin my climb today.
When half-way there I stop and watch below
as a coyote slowly wends his way
thru grasses tall, across the green meadow.
I stay ’til he’s gone, then I’ll find the falls.
Slow running streams that teem with rainbow trout
is far below me now and I’m at peace
and touching heavens breath.  Soon I’ll decide
to leave and fish for dinner.  I’ll not cease
to wonder at the calm enjoyed beside
slow running streams that teem with rainbow trout.
 © Lawrencealot – February 27, 2013

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This template was created for iambic pentameter stanzas.



Antiphon, Latin, antiphona derived from Greek antiphonon, sounding against, responsive sound, singing opposite, alternate chant; is a response from a congregation or chorus sung or recited before and after a Psalm verse read or sung by a cantor. The phrase which serves as the antiphon text contains not only the fundamental message of the psalm to which it is sung, but also brings attention to the point of view from which it is to be understood. It is central to the liturgical and mystical meaning of the psalm with regard to the occasion or feast day on which it is sung. As a poetic genre it is a poem with a responsive refrain.

The Antiphon is:
• stanzaic, alternating short-long-short stanzas. The response-refrain is in short stanzas, no longer than a couplet. The alternating verse stanza may be structured at the discretion of the poet, most often in quatrains.
• originally to be sung, therefore although no specific meter is designated, it should carry a lyrical rhythm.
• rhymed or unrhymed at the discretion of the poet.
• composed with the responsive refrain containing the central theme from a particular point of view.

Antiphon by George Herbert 1633

Cho. Let all the world in ev’ry corner sing,
—————– My God and King.

Vers. The heav’ns are not too high,
—— His praise may thither flie:
—— The earth is not too low,
—— His praises there may grow.

Cho. Let all the world in ev’ry corner sing,
—————– My God and King.

Vers. The church with psalms must shout,
—— No doore can keep them out:
—– But above all, the heart
—— Must bear the longest part.

Cho. Let all the world in ev’ry corner sing,
—————— My God and King.

How great is He? by Judi Van Gorder

Pure are the colors of tulips in bloom,
true yellows and reds, set against green,
all shades and grades, brilliant at noon.

How great is He, sire of all that’s seen?

The sun dries the rain soaked earth
while warblers fuss and preen
and His garden sprouts new birth.

How great is He, sire of all that’s seen?

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My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example


Who Named This Form (Antiphon)

Every day I find a form
that ancient poets wrote.
In trying hard to conform
It seems I often fail, you’ll note.

If it seems like Greek to you, alas it well may be.

“Who named these forms”, someone asked,
Teachers or some Polish nerd?
Don’t take all those folks to task.
It might be Latin that you heard.

If it seems like Greek to you, alas it well may be.

© Lawrencealot – November 10, 2014


Pathways for the Poet by Viola Berg (1977) appears to be a book for educators. Classic poetic forms as well as many invented forms that can be used as teaching tools or exercises for use in workshops or classrooms are included. Some of these invented forms I have found in use in internet poetry communities, a testament to their staying power. On this page I include the syllabic invented forms found therein which appear to be exclusive to the community of educators from whom Ms. Berg drew her support. I have yet to find these in any other source. I have included the metric invented forms on a separate page. Whether classroom exercise or sharpening your skill as a writer, some of these forms can be fun to play with.
• Baccresiezé is an invented form, apparently created as an exercise in repetition. This verse form has two and a half different refrains. It is attributed to E. Ernest Murell.

The Baccresiezé is:
○ stanzaic, written in 3 quatrains.
○ syllabic, L1,L2,L3 are 8 syllables and L4 is 4 syllables.
○ refrained, L4 of each quatrain is a refrain and L1 of the first quatrain is repeated as L3 in the 2nd quatrain. The last 4 syllables of L1 are repeated as the last 4 syllables of L2 in the first quatrain only.
○ rhymed, with a complicated rhyme scheme AaxB bxAB xxxB x being unrhymed.

The Will by by Judi Van Gorder

—————I read of love, undying love,
what does that mean, undying love?
A rose withers, a blossom falls,
————— what lives will die.
Love is a will, a rush, a sigh,
a touch, a cry, a hope, a rock.
I read of love, undying love,
————— what lives will die.
Blush of new love we know must fade
replaced in time with trust and grace.
In rest, I will my love remain.
————– What lives will die.

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My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for her wonderful PMO resource.

Syllabic: 8/8/8/4
Stanzaic: Three Quatrains
CorrectedRhyme Pattern: AA1xB bxAB xxxB x being unrhymed

My example

And Yet We Lived

And Yet We Lived (Baccresiezé)

We walked across the hot asphalt
bare feet imprint the hot asphalt
embedding footprints in the road
—————–when we were boys.

Strange things we found became our toys
and after wading in canals
We walked across the hot asphalt
——————when we were boys.

We drank from hoses, slept outside,
and rode for miles two on one bike.
We never owned a helmet once
—————when we were boys.

© Lawrencealot – March 5, 2014

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Structure, Metrical Requirement, Repetitive Requirement
Description: Form invented by US poet John Ciardi, it could be considered a semi-gloss. It consists of six six-line verses. Each line of the first verse is the first line of one of the six verses in order. Ciardi’s trenta-sei was written in five-stress accentual lines.
Attributed to: John Ciardi
Origin: American
Schematic: Repetition scheme:
Rhythm/Stanza Length: 6
Line/Poem Length:          36

Measuring poetry as accentual verse, one only counts the stressed syllables in the line, so a line might have four stresses and anywhere from four to sixteen syllables and still be considered a four-stress line. Many forms of accentual verse use alliteration to tie the stresses together.

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My thanks to Charles L. Weatherford for his years of work on the wonderful Poetrybase resource.


The poem consists of six six-line stanzas rhyming ababcc, with lines two through six in stanza one becoming line one of a following stanza, in that order. As a resolving device, he allows the fifth line of stanza one to change from the present tense to the past when it appears as the first line of stanza five.
As in other works by John Ciardi, the line is clearly the unit of the poem, a unit at the same time of sound, sense, and syntax, so that the reader progressing through the poem feels solid ground underfoot. At the same time, most of the lines raise a question, in the mind of the reader, that the next line will answer:
The species-truth of the matter is we are glad (of what?)
to have a death to munch on. Truth to tell, (which truth is what?)
we are also glad to pretend it makes us sad.
When it comes to dying, Keats did it so well (how well?)
we thrill to the performance…
And so forth, building for the reader a compelling sense of forward motion.
Ciardi’s rarest accomplishment in this poem, apart from the prosodic form, is the closing of a thought with the closing of each stanza. It’s not often that we find a poet so clearly in control of the poem.
The resolution of the poem is perhaps its finest moment: It looks back on itself and says to the reader—inductively, so that she can take it home—“This is what the poem is getting at,” and says it with such finality that if it were the last line on the page, one would not turn the page to see if the poem ended there. The poem doesn’t just end: it resolves.
All of this is to say that John Ciardi has done what the maker of any artwork wants to do, which is to make the very difficult look easy, to give form to the wildest feelings, and—though this rarely happens—to give the art a shape it didn’t have before. One would think that such a shape in poetry would begin to appear in anthologies and textbooks, and that other poets would be persuaded by the intriguing challenges and possibilities to write their own trenta-seis.

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Trenta-sei, (French = 36), is a modern day verse form that appears to have taken its cue from the Sestina and the Villanelle. “Like the Sestina it is a strong pattern not likely to get lost in the language of the poem” Miller Williams, Patterns of Poetry, although it seems less “thought out”. The rotating repetition of lines from the first stanza brings a little feel of the Villanelle but the repetition is less obvious. The Trenta-sei was created by a 20th century American Poet, John Ciardi.

The Trenta-sei is:
• narrative verse.
• usually written as accentual verse (the rhythm of today’s speech) with 5 stressed syllables per line
• stanzaic, composed of 6 sixains, 36 lines total.
• rhymed, with the rhyme scheme of a heroic sestet, aB1A1B2C1C2 / B1dbdee / A1fafgg / B2hbhii / C1jcjkk / C2lclmm
• composed with each line (with the exception of L1) of the first stanza taking its turn as the first line of the following stanzas..

Game Six, a trenta sei by Judi Van Gorder 10-26-02
Bonds at bat, Rodrigues paws the mound,
no outs, one strike, two balls, two more, will he walk?
Excited fans react with thunder stick sound
the summer sport disciples have come to gawk.
Illusive is the rocky road to fame,
a national favorite, a World Series game.

No outs, one strike, two balls, two more, will he walk?
It’s the top of the sixth, no runners on base
he swings with quickening speed and powers the rock
I watch the ball soar high—to outer space,
and he does it again and jogs home to his fate;
his place in history, he’ll not abdicate.

Excited fans react with thunder stick sound,
with rattle slap and clatter, when will it stop?
The noise so loud it shakes and rumbles the ground
like a stampede of horses running clippety-clop
and what is with that monkey on the stick?
If Giants should win, the angels will be sick!

The summer sport disciples have come to gawk
enjoying beer and hot dogs passing around
while spectators cheer, others in shock.
It’s the thrill of the place, the faithful expound,
intensity builds increasing the sound of the din
and I pray for my team to bring home the big win.

Illusive is the rocky road to fame,
the team in red at home and now, down one.
My guys on the road, with ralley monkeys to tame;
a hit, the Angels scored, now this is no fun.
The top of the ninth, can we pull this one through?
My stomach in knots like I just got the flu.

A national favorite, a World Series game,
“strike three” he shouts–and number six is done,
tomorrow tells if hopes go up in flame.
Another nine innings and the best team has won,
we’ll call them the champs and have a parade.
my hopes are the Giants will make the grade.

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My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

Rhyme scheme: aB1A1B2C1C2 B1dbdee A1fafgg B2hbhii C1jcjkk C2lclmm

My example

Note: Dear readers this uses FOUR stressed syllables per line, rather than the standard 5, simply the result of this poet’s inattention.

Tytler Unfolding   (Trenta-sei)

To ask for more from other men,
expecting something is your due
to take and take and take again
That leads to power all will rue.
A tyranny must wrest control
to lock down dictatorial role.

Expecting something is your due
when you’ve not served the body’s cause
will only work when just a few
rely on stipends passed by laws.
When many take and few produce
the few will balk at that abuse.

to take and take and take again
requires the government to tax.
the payer may not now abstain
and takers need not even ask.
At some point, ruler will inflate
in order to accommodate.

That leads to power all will rue.
Dependency per Tytler’s rules
is followed by dictator’s coup.
When selfishness makes many fools
and wealth has had to concentrate
the government must confiscate.

A tyranny must wrest control
and then the one-percent must fall
to keep the masses on the dole,
then things deteriorate for all.
And thus the cycle will repeat-
with bloodshed when there’s naught to eat.

To lock down dictatorial role
The business king-pins must be crushed.
An iron fist must take its toll-
then pain- the cycle can’t be rushed.
We’re getting close; I fear great cost
we must awaken ‘ere we’re lost.

© Lawrencealot – August 25, 2014

* The Tytle Cycle is explained here:

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Type: Structure, Metrical Requirement, Rhyme Scheme Requirement, Other Requirement
Description: A seven-couplet poem, the pleiadic’s first stanza is repeated piece-meal in the other six stanzas. Specifically, S2L1s1-4, S3L1s5-8, S4L1s9-10, S5L2s1-4, S6L2s5-8, and S7L2s9-10. There is some slight leeway in interpretation, for instance “-er” might become “her.”
Attributed to:Vera Rich
Rhythm/Stanza Length: 2
Line/Poem Length: 14

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My thanks to Charles L. Weatherford for his years of work on the wonderful Poetrybase resource.


The pleiadic is a verse form devised by Vera Rich, so-called because of its seven stanzas. It looks like this:

My love is quite unlike a red red rose –
No thorns, a sweeter smell, a paler nose.
My love is quite immaculate; the sun
Shines from her every orifice, bar none.
I have been smitten, like a red-nosed clown
By custard pies; in sweetness, I may drown.
Each day I offer her a blood-red rose
Which she declines; each day my ardour grows.
The blooms she spurns would be the pride of Kew –
No thorns, a sweet perfume, a lush deep hue.
I can’t imagine what mistake I’ve made –
Perhaps a subtler smell, a paler shade?
I brandish blossoms everywhere she goes.
I wish I knew why she turns up her nose.
The highlighted parts of stanzas 2 to 7 together make up a repeat of the whole of the first stanza, with each part in turn appearing in the same position in the new stanza as it did in the first. Each line is in iambic pentameter, and the repeats cover respectively 4, 4, 2, 4, 4 and 2 syllables. That’s all there is to it…
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My thanks to Bob Newman for his wonderful resouce at Volecentral.

Not mentioned in either source above is the
Rhyme pattern: aabbccaaddeeaa

My example poem

Guy’s Lies (Pleiadic)

Can you believe I’ve never told a lie?
It’s all because my mem’ry’s bad, that’s why.

Can you believe I’m happy and content
Although each month my money’s mostly spent?

Forgetting lies I’ve never told someone
would be a bitch and probably not fun.

“Does this make me look fat?” Don’t tell a lie?
Tell her “Your hair looks splendid, sweetie-pie.”

Some people fib to be nice; that’s a fact.
It’s all because they’re exercising tact.

And if I get an answer wrong one day,
you know it’s ‘cus my mem’ry’s bad, okay?

I have few friends I’m not a tactful guy.
My wife has left me; could it be that’s why?
© Lawrencealot – August 17, 2014

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Twisted End

The Twisted End form is a creation of Nichole Alexander.

 This is a stanzaic poem consisting of four or five tercet stanzas.
Each stanza has independent monorhyme.
There is no line-length or meter requirement.
The defining requirement of the form is that some part  of each of the first two lines be “twisted” together in forming the third stanza line which MUST INCLUDE INTERNAL RHYME.




Example Poem

Write a Twisted End   (Twisted End)

 You must depend on rhyme as your good friend
with mono and internal rhyme to blend
depend on your internal rhyme to end.

The Twisted End sets forth no metric tone.
but permits choice if poet is so prone.
The Twisted End my friend permits your own.

No poetic device is disallowed.
A verse endowed will rise above the crowd.
Device endowed attempts should make one proud.

Alliterate or write with metaphor
or obfuscate and be a common boor.
Allit with wit makes common a bit more.

 © Lawrencealot – March 13, 2013


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