Kolang

  • The Kloang is stanzaic verse usually of proverbs originating in Thailand. One source suggests the Kloang attempts to capture the rhythm of oar strokes on the water. A Thai landmark Phra Mondob (Scripture Hall) built in the 19th century is decorated with Thai Verse proverbs called Kloang Lokaniti engraved on the outer-walls . The form is considered poetry of the intellectual because of its complicated tonal and rhyme patterns. Along with the Raay, it is one of the oldest forms of Thai poetry. It was developed when the Thai language had only 3 tones, high, low and neutral, the language now has 5 tones. The tonal pattern of the Kloang creates a unique rhythm which is its defining feature and impossible to emulate in English.
    Thailand’s honored poet 
    Sunthorn Phy’s (1786-1855) most exciting adventure poem “Nirat Suphan” was written in the Kloang form.
    The Kloang is:

    • syllabic. L1, L2, L3 are 7 syllables each, L4 is 9 syllables.
    • stanzaic, written with any number of quatrains.
    • composed with an interweaving or cross rhyme scheme. The end word of L1 rhymes with the 5th syllables of L2 and L3. The end word of L2 rhymes with the 5th syllable of L4. L3 and L4 end rhyme.
    • is most often a poem of nature.
    • tonal which is impossible in the English language.
      x x x x a x b
      x x x x b x a
      x x x x b x c
      x x x x a x x x c
      Arctic Love —Judi Van Gorder
      Gnarly feet trudge on the ice,
      eighty miles entice a pawn
      of nature, the price to mate,
      four year cycle drawn up to create

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=1035#chann

My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My Example

East Coast Storm (Kloang)

 In the east there’s snow and ice,
for some that’s not nice you know.
Driving now takes twice the time
and air traffic flow’s far from sublime.

 © Lawrencealot – January 27, 2015

 

Visual template

Kolang

Kloon

Thai Poetry

• The Kloon or Klon (meaning simple verse) is sometimes known as the “true Thai poetic form”. It is the basic and most common Thai verse written with simple subjects and simple words.

The Kloon is:
○ stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains
○ syllabic, 4 to 8 syllables per line.
○ composed with each line made up of 2 to 3 phrases.
○ rhymed with an intricate rhyme pattern. The internal rhyme can be optional or reduced. The tone is looser than most Thai forms but it the end syllable of each line is usually rising which is in sync with most Western verse of iambic meter.

x x a x a x a b
x x b x b x x c
x x x x x x x c
x x c x c x x d

x x d x d x a e
x x e x e x x f
x x x x x x x f
x x f x f x x g

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=1035#chann

My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example
Three Types of Rhyme (Kloon)
If I’m to rhyme inside and out
I’ll scout about before I start
for rhymes to fit into my art.
Apart from smartness, I’ll need wit.
Omit unfit words which outrage
as staged on page for rhyme alone.
When you are done you can’t disown
what’s shown by tone and rhythm here.
© Lawrencealot – January 27, 2015
Visual template

Kloon

Since, one can exercise options with the internal rhyme,
in this poem, I moved the rhyming columns to fit iambic
Meter. One could just as well use the above designated
Columns, and use trochaic.
Cross rhyme: When the end word rhymes with a word in the middle of the next line.
Internal rhyme: Rhyming within a line.
Interlaced rhyme A word in the middle of one line rhymes with a word in the middle of another.

Thailand Poetry – Reference

Thailand, formerly known as Siam is at the center of Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma, Loas, Cambodia, Malaysia, the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. It is the only country in south-east Asia to never have been under colonial rule. The poetry has been influenced most by the Buddhist religion and by the monarchy and its military. 

• Chann seems to be the most variable of the Thai forms with indistinct features which are vague and change with whatever source one reads. The syllables are measured as light or heavy. Most sources agree that it is a descendant of the Pali meters and uses 17 or 18 syllables. Line count, rhyme and tone are alluded to but undefined.
• The Kaap is a genre of Thai verse that describes nature.
• The Kloang is stanzaic verse usually of proverbs originating in Thailand. One source suggests the Kloang attempts to capture the rhythm of oar strokes on the water. A Thai landmark Phra Mondob (Scripture Hall) built in the 19th century is decorated with Thai Verse proverbs called Kloang Lokaniti engraved on the outer-walls . The form is considered poetry of the intellectual because of its complicated tonal and rhyme patterns. Along with the Raay, it is one of the oldest forms of Thai poetry. It was developed when the Thai language had only 3 tones, high, low and neutral, the language now has 5 tones. The tonal pattern of the Kloang creates a unique rhythm which is its defining feature and impossible to emulate in English.

Thailand’s honored poet Sunthorn Phy’s (1786-1855) most exciting adventure poem “Nirat Suphan” was written in the Kloang form.

The Kloang is:
○ syllabic. L1, L2, L3 are 7 syllables each, L4 is 9 syllables.
○ stanzaic, written with any number of quatrains.
○ composed with an interweaving or cross rhyme scheme. The end word of L1 rhymes with the 5th syllables of L2 and L3. The end word of L2 rhymes with the 5th syllable of L4. L3 and L4 end rhyme.
○ is most often a poem of nature.
○ tonal which is impossible in the English language.

x x x x a x b
x x x x b x a
x x x x b x c
x x x x a x x x c

Arctic Love –Judi Van Gorder

Gnarly feet trudge on the ice,
eighty miles entice a pawn
of nature, the price to mate,
four year cycle drawn up to create
• The Kloon or Klon (meaning simple verse) is sometimes known as the “true Thai poetic form”. It is the basic and most common Thai verse written with simple subjects and simple words.

The Kloon is:
○ stanzaic, written in any number of quatrains
○ syllabic, 4 to 8 syllables per line.
○ composed with each line made up of 2 to 3 phrases.
○ rhymed with an intricate rhyme pattern. The internal rhyme can be optional or reduced. The tone is looser than most Thai forms but it the end syllable of each line is usually rising which is in sync with most Western verse of iambic meter.

x x a x a x a b
x x b x b x x c
x x x x x x x c
x x c x c x x d

x x d x d x a e
x x e x e x x f
x x x x x x x f
x x f x f x x g
• The Lilit is an alternating Raay and Kloang verse. Usually the Raay is used to describe the action and the Kloang is the dialogue.

The Lilit is:
○ stanzaic, alternating Raay couplets with Kloang quatrains.
○ syllabic, the couplets are 5 syllable lines and the quatrains are L1-L3 7 syllable lines and L4 is a 9 syllable line.
○ couplets composed with a chain, linking the lines of the couplet and linking the stanzas.
○ rhymed, composed with cross, interlaced and end rhyme .

x x x x a
a x x x b

b x x x c x d
x x x x d x c
x x x x d x e
x x x x c x x x e

e x x x f
f x x x g

g x x x h x i
x x x x i x h
x x x x i x j
x x x x h x x x j
• The Raay or Rai is a forerunner of the Kloang and has the same unique tonal pattern. It is a chained verse, written with the end syllable of L1 rhymed with the beginning syllable of L2. It was often used to record laws and chronicle events in verse.

The Raay is
○ stanzaic, written in a series of couplets.
○ syllabic, 5 syllables per line.
○ chain rhymed, the last syllable of L1 rhymes with the first syllable of L2.

• The Totok is a verse form in 4 unrhymed lines of anapestic tetrameter. I found this form in only one source although I was able to find that “Totok” refers to Cantonese immigrants that come to Thailand and tend to retain their Chinese language and customs.

The Totok is:
○ a poem in 4 lines.
○ accentual syllabic, anapestic tetrameter.
○ unrhymed.

Anticipated —Judi Van Gorder

A tick ticking of earth’s endless seasonal clock,
though our Winter stayed late, Spring began without fanfare,
silent sprouts broke the surface of frost covered ground
bringing Spring with its showers and flowers and light.

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=1035#chann
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

I shall document separately and try my hand at some of the individual forms, but cannot provide a better overview than Judi has done here.

Tengahan Wukir

Javanese poetry was originally meant to be sung for an audience, not read in private.

• Tengahan Wukir meter is a form of Kidung (songs) that marries the stanza length with the meter used. They were written for all occasions up until the mid 1500s.
The Tengahan Wukir is:
○ stanzaic, can be written in any number of 9 line stanzas.
○ syllabic, 10-6-8-7-8-8-8-8-8 syllables per line.
○ composed in a pattern of vowel sounds in the end syllable, not necessarily rhyme. Vowel sounds pattern, u-e-i-u-u-e-u-a-a.

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=1809#tengahan
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

I could find NO EXAMPLE on line, so I won’t try to resuscitate this form.

Taylor

• The Taylor is an invented form, patterned from Upon a Spider Catching a Fly by Edward Taylor (1642-1729) who some call the finest colonial poet although his work was not published until 1939. A puritan poet, his poems are lyrical and yet reflect a staunch Calvanist tone. 

The Taylor is:
○ stanzaic, written in any number of cinquains.
○ metric, iambic, L1 trimeter, L2 and L4 dimeter, L3 tetrameter, L5 monometer.
○ rhymed or at least near rhymed ababb cdcdd efeff etc.

Upon a Spider Catching a Fly by Edward Taylor

Thou sorrow, venom elf.
Is this thy play,
To spin a web out of thyself
To catch a fly?
For why?

I saw a pettish wasp
Fall foul therein,
Whom yet thy whorl pins did not clasp
Lest he should fling
His sting.

But as afraid, remote
Didst stand here at
And with thy little fingers stroke
And gently tap
His back.

Thus gently him didst treat
Lest he should pet,
And in a froppish waspish heat
Should greatly fret
Thy net.

Whereas the silly fly,
Caught by its leg,
Thou by the throat took’st hastily
And ‘hind the head
Bite dead.

This goes to pot, that not
Nature doth call.
Strive not above what strength hath got
Lest in the brawl
Thou fall.

This fray seems thus to us:
Hell’s spider gets
His entrails spun to whipcords’ thus,
And wove to nets
And sets,

To tangle Adam’s race
In’s stratagems
To their destructions, spoiled, made base
By venom things,
Damned sins.

But mighty, gracious Lord,
Communicate
Thy grace to break the cord; afford
Us glory’s gate
And state.

We’ll Nightingale sing like,
When perched on high
In glory’s cage, Thy glory, bright,
And thankfully,
For joy.

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=616
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

Broken Names (Form: Taylor)

I have a friend named Jack,
his brother’s Al.
Their mother wants her old name back
to boost locale
morale.

Since Ackbarr’s now her name
she thinks it’s broken,
perverted by the Islam game
when it’s a token
spoken.

One can’t now yell, “Hi, Jack”
most any where
nor “Allen Ackbarr, glad you’re back!
You been somewhere
by air?”

© Lawrencealot – January 26, 2015

Visual template

Taylor

Tanka

Tanka, 短歌 “short song” is meant to be filled with personal and emotional expression. The tanka expresses feelings and thoughts regardless of the direction they take. Originally there was also an attempt to connect these thoughts and feelings to nature. The tanka, unlike the haiku, may use figurative expressions such as metaphor or simile. The form is less rigid, more casual than the haiku. It allows the imagination to help the poet express feelings.

 

The tanka is a descendant of the waka, one of the earliest Japanese forms and dates back to the 8th century. The description of the waka and tanka are separated by a thin line, mostly time. However the tanka is defined more by content and style than syllabic prescription, still most tanka like its ancestor the waka are confined by 31 onji or syllables and broken into 5 lines of 5-7-5-7-7.

 

Members of the royal court were expected to write tanka and it was often exchanged as communication, including being passed as love notes. It became the concluding stanza of the communal linked Renga. Classic Japanese Tanka were collected in anthologies that were sponsored by members of the royal court. One of the most prominent writers of the 9th century was a woman, Ono no Komachi, still admired for her work. When a tanka is satirical it is sometimes referred to as kyoka.

The form addressed themes as natural beauty, love, the impermanence of life, the activities of the common people and separation. “To be touched by things” “mono no aware” is an important idea in tanka writing as well as the later developed Haiku. A Tanka String is a group of tankas written around the same theme and strung together in no particular order. 

 

The tanka is:

  • syllabic, 31 or less syllables, most commonly 5-7-5-7-7, in variation the lines are best kept with odd numbered syllables.

  • normally but not always a 5 line poem, the 5 line pattern however does seem to prevail.

  • defined by content and style more than the syllabic prescription. But there is still a pattern of short and long lines rather than a metered equal length.

  • written as a personal or emotional expression of themes such as natural beauty, love, the impermanence of live, the activities of the common people

  • composed with the priority of “to be touched by things” “mono no aware” and use of concrete images.

I wait for you

Oh! With tender passion

As in my house

The bamboo blinds stir

Blown by autumn wind

—Princess Nukada (7th century)

 

See how the blossoms

That are falling about me

Fade after long rain

While, quietly as in prayer,

I have gazed my life away.

— Ono no Komachi (9th century)

 

I shut my eyes

But nothing whatsoever

Surfaces in my mind

In my utter loneliness

I open them up again

—Takuboku (19th century)

 

chill of soundless night

without your breath near my ear

pillow untended

lies on cold and empty bed

waits for heat of your return. . .

— Judi Van Gorder

Brooklyn on Nabisco at Leaps and Bounds Pediatric Horse Therapy Ranch
Brooklyn
small girl mounts tall horse
braced leg slips from the stirrup
animal adjusts
steps under her shifted weight
teaches smiling child balance
~~~jvg~~~

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=1141
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

Meeting  (Tanka)

electronically
we met, teased, became attached
we were connected
the physical meeting
was merely confirmation

© Lawrencealot – January 26, 2015

 
 

Tan Renga

North America’s answer to the Japanese linked form Renku or Renga is to shorten the pattern and involve fewer poets. And even though they adopt the 5-7-5 7-7 syllabic patterns of the Japanese form, they often reduce the number of syllables and sometimes number of lines. The American versions do not “link and shift” like the Japanese but are usually built around a theme. Nor do they require an introductory hokku with setting and season and other such elements common in the Renga.


The Tan Renga is:
○ a poem in 5 lines, made up of a tercet followed by a couplet.
○ a cooperative poem. One poet writes the tercet, the 2nd poet writes the couplet.
○ syllabic, 5-7-5, syllables per line or 17 syllables or less created image. The 2nd link is 7-7 syllables per line or 14 syllables or less.
○ composed with the couplet drawing a mood from the image of the tercet a kind of statement – response scenario.

the phone rings
a vendor mispronounces
my name

no offer sounds so sweet
as a friend calling your name

(I am sorry, I found this in my notes but I don’t know who wrote it. I include it here because it is such a perfect example of the form and I love the verse. If anyone reading this recognizes it and knows the name of the poet, please let me know so I can give the author credit.)

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=1957
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

Not having a collaborator on hand at the time, I shall simply leave you with the fine and sufficient description that Judi has provided.

Spenserian Quintilla

The Spenserian Quintilla is an American stanzaic form which was first recognized by Miller Williams in Patterns of Poetry when he notes a Spenserian variation framing The Second Best Bed by Howard Nemerov, he called it the Spenserian Quintilla.

The Spenserian Quintilla is:
• stanzaic, written in any number of cinquains.
• syllabic, L1-L4 are 8 syllables each, L5 is 12 syllables.
• rhymed, axabb cxcdd etc x being unrhymed. 

The Second-Best Bed by Howard Nemerov

Consider now that Troy has burned
—Priam is dead, and Hector dead,
And great Aeneas long since turned
Away seaward with his gods
To find, found or founder, against frightful odds.

And figure to yourselves the clown
Who comes with educated word
To illustrate in mask and gown
King Priam’s most illustrious son
And figure forth his figure with many another one

Of that most cremented time
In times have been or are to be
Inhearsed in military rime;
And will recite of royal fates
Until, infamonized among those potentates

By a messenger from nearer home,
His comedy is compromised
And he must leave both Greece and Rome
Abuilding but not half begun,
To play the honest Troyan to a girl far gone.

The wench lived on, if the son died—
All Denmark wounded in one bed
Cried vengeance on the lusty bride,
Who could not care that there would follow,
After the words of Mercury, songs of Apollo.
———— from The Collected Poems of Howard Nemerov 1977

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=2061
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

2nd Thoughts

2nd Thoughts (Spenserian Quintilla)

Thoughts conjured up within my brain
I sometimes think are mine alone
but how on earth does one explain
insights (which I admit are rare)
appearing suddenly (it seems) and from nowhere?

The brain’s impulses it is known
are electrical fields at work,
that’s something that’s been clearly shown.
The magnetism thus invoked
extends to common pools, which maybe I evoked.

© Lawrencealot – January 25, 2015

Visual template

Spenserian Quintilla

Short Rondel

• The Short Rondel might better be described as a short Rondeau than Rondel because this form uses the rentrement or first phrase of L1 as a refrain rather than the full line as in the Rondel. 

The Short Rondel is:
○ a poem in 11 lines made up of sixain followd by a quintain.
○ isosyllabic, often 8 syllalbe lines, except for L6 & L11 which are the shorter first phrase of L1.
○ rhymed, rhyme scheme aabbcC ddeeC.
r r r C x x x a
x x x x x x x a
x x x x x x x b
x x x x x x x b
r r r C
x x x x x x x d
x x x x x x x d
x x x x x x x e
x x x x x x x e
r r r C

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=1382#shortrondel
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

I Walk My Dog

I Walk My Dog (Short Rondel)

I walk my dog to let him pee
on damn near every pole we see.
We do not walk to get somewhere,
before we started we were there.
In bright sunshine and in the fog
I walk my dog.

He’s introduced me to new folk
with whom we now will stop and joke.
The children love my little guy
and that is really part of why
I walk my dog.

© Lawrencealot – January 24, 2015

Visual template

Short Rondel

Seven-Eleven Couplet Rhyme

Seven-Eleven, the defining features are:
• stanzaic, any number of couplets.
• syllabic, mixed or irregular 7 and 11 syllabic line. 7-7 7-11 11-11 11-7 etc or 7-11 7-7 11-7 11-7 11-11 or whatever combination at the discretion of the poet. (although L6 and if there is a L11 are always 11 syllables.)
• rhymed, consonant-full rhyme

Pasted from http://www.poetrymagnumopus.com/index.php?showtopic=1026#seven
My thanks to Judi Van Gorder for years of work on this fine PMO resource.

My example

Sleepwork (Form: Seven-Eleven Couplet Rhyme)

Now, I put myself to bed
couplets kicking in my head.
Tried to think during the day;
things to do got in my way.
Sleep connects me to a tool.
It is a universal consciousness pool.
Every thought of every man
exists out there and you can
with a little bit of luck,
tune to Robert Frost or Buk
Can’t promise you’ll connect, but I think you will.
Assembling those thoughts take skill.

© Lawrencealot – January 23, 2015